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Sökning: WFRF:(Comba Pietro)

  • Resultat 1-6 av 6
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1.
  • Berger, Eloise, et al. (författare)
  • Association between low-grade inflammation and Breast cancer and B-cell Myeloma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma : Findings from two prospective cohorts
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic inflammation may be involved in cancer development and progression. Using 28 inflammatory-related proteins collected from prospective blood samples from two case-control studies nested in the Italian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (n = 261) and in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (n = 402), we tested the hypothesis that an inflammatory score is associated with breast cancer (BC) and Β-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (B-cell NHL, including 68 multiple myeloma cases) onset. We modelled the relationship between this inflammatory score and the two cancers studied: (BC and B-cell NHL) using generalised linear models, and assessed, through adjustments the role of behaviours and lifestyle factors. Analyses were performed by cancer types pooling both populations, and stratified by cohorts, and time to diagnosis. Our results suggested a lower inflammatory score in B-cell NHL cases (β = -1.28, p = 0.012), and, to lesser, extent with BC (β = -0.96, p = 0.33) compared to controls, mainly driven by cancer cases diagnosed less than 6 years after enrolment. These associations were not affected by subsequent adjustments for potential intermediate confounders, notably behaviours. Sensitivity analyses indicated that our findings were not affected by the way the inflammatory score was calculated. These observations call for further studies involving larger populations, larger variety of cancer types and repeated measures of larger panel of inflammatory markers.
2.
  • Chatziioannou, Aristotelis, et al. (författare)
  • Blood-based omic profiling supports female susceptibility to tobacco smoke-induced cardiovascular diseases
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We recently reported that differential gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in blood leukocytes of apparently healthy smokers predicts with remarkable efficiency diseases and conditions known to be causally associated with smoking, suggesting that blood-based omic profiling of human populations may be useful for linking environmental exposures to potential health effects. Here we report on the sex-specific effects of tobacco smoking on transcriptomic and epigenetic features derived from genome-wide profiling in white blood cells, identifying 26 expression probes and 92 CpG sites, almost all of which are affected only in female smokers. Strikingly, these features relate to numerous genes with a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, especially thrombin signaling, including the thrombin receptors on platelets F2R (coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor; PAR1) and GP5 (glycoprotein 5), as well as HMOX1 (haem oxygenase 1) and BCL2L1 (BCL2-like 1) which are involved in protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis, respectively. These results are in concordance with epidemiological evidence of higher female susceptibility to tobacco-induced cardiovascular disease and underline the potential of blood-based omic profiling in hazard and risk assessment.
3.
  • Comba, Pietro (författare)
  • Epidemiologic studies of nasal cancer and occupational exposures
  • 1992
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The object of the present research has been to elucidate the associations between malignant epithelial neoplasms of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses and workplace exposures to ascertained as well as suspected cancer causing agents and processes.</p><p>The research includes six independent case-control studies, located in various Italian regions. These regions are characterized by different patterns of industrialization, resulting in an involvement of various occupations of interest. Furthermore, the main findings of a national programme of surveillance of nasal cancer are presented.</p><p>The regions selected for the studies were the district ofBiella in Piedmont (high proportion of the active population employed in textile industry), the province of Brescia in Lombardy (high proportion of the activepopulation employed in metal industry), the provinces of Verona and Vicenza in Venetia (an area characterized by textile and leather industry and by farming), the province of Siena (a mainly rural area, with a well-established wood industry) and the province of Pisa (characterized by the presence of wood and leather industry); the two latter provinces are both located in Tuscany. The national surveillance program was based on the collaborative effort of 61 ear, nose and throat departments operating all over Italy. Finally, a case-control study involving subjects from the National Cancer Institute in Milan provided information at a national level, since patients from all over the country attend this centre.</p><p>The present research confrrmed the well established risk of nasal cancer associated with the occupations of woodworker and leatherworker. The combined estimates of the odds ratios were 6.0 (90% CI: 3.8-9.3) and 5. 7 (90 % Cl: 2.8-12), respectively, which are lower and somewhat less dramatic effects than seen in some of the earlier studies.</p><p>A significant association between nasal cancer and some other occupations was detected, namely metal industry, the combined estimate of the odds ratio being 2.3 (90 % Cl: 1.2-4.3), textile and gannent industry (OR: 2.2; 90% Cl: 1.2-4.1), mining and construction industry (OR: 2.8; 90% Cl: 1.6·5.0), fanning (OR: 2.3; 90% Cl: 1.4-3.8) and other occupations entailing exposures to dusts and fumes (OR: 2.0; 90% Cl: 1.1-3.6).</p><p>The etiologic fraction associated with all hazardous occupational exposures was about 60 %, indicating that a considerable preventive effect could be achievable by improving the quality of the work environment. With regard to the high fatality of this disease, and the serious impairments of quality of life among the survivors, the importance of prevention is not only obvious but also ethically imperative.</p>
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4.
  • Pearce, Neil E, et al. (författare)
  • IARC Monographs 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 123:6, s. 507-514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups' failures to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans.</p><p>OBJECTIVES: The authors of this paper are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We have examined here criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. We review the history of IARC evaluations and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed.</p><p>DISCUSSION: We conclude that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various discipline and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed.</p><p>CONCLUSIONS<strong>:</strong> The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health.</p>
5.
  • Settimi, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risk among male farmers : a multi-site case-control study
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. - 1232-1087. ; 14:4, s. 339-348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Farmers may experience exposure to several hazardous substances, and cancer risk in this occupational group is considered an important public health issue.</p><p>In order to examine the association between cancer and farming among male agricultural workers, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in five Italian rural areas. The cancer sites selected for the study were: lip, oral cavity and oropharynx, oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, lung, skin melanoma, skin non-melanoma, prostate, bladder, kidney, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In all, 1525 newly diagnosed cases, aged 20-75 years, were ascertained in hospital records, covering the period between March 1990 and September 1992, and for 1279 of them, a detailed exposure information was collected by a standard questionnaire. Data analyses were performed comparing each cancer site to a control group, including a subset of the other cancer sites in the study. Unconditional logistic regression models were used in the statistical analyses.</p><p>Increased risks of cancer associated with agricultural work were found for stomach (OR = 1.4, 95%CI:0.9-2.0), rectum (OR = 1.5, 95%CI:0.8-2.7), larynx (OR = 1.4, 95%CI:0.8-2.5), and prostate (OR = 1.4, 95%CI:1.0-2.1). The excess of prostate cancer was specifically related to application of pesticides (OR = 1.7, 95%CI:1.2-2.6).</p>
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6.
  • Vermeulen, Roel, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-diagnostic blood immune markers, incidence and progression of B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma univariate and functionally informed multivariate analyses
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 143:6, s. 1335-1347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Recent prospective studies have shown that dysregulation of the immune system may precede the development of B‐cell lymphomas (BCL) in immunocompetent individuals. However, to date, the studies were restricted to a few immune markers, which were considered separately. Using a nested case–control study within two European prospective cohorts, we measured plasma levels of 28 immune markers in samples collected a median of 6 years before diagnosis (range 2.01–15.97) in 268 incident cases of BCL (including multiple myeloma [MM]) and matched controls. Linear mixed models and partial least square analyses were used to analyze the association between levels of immune marker and the incidence of BCL and its main histological subtypes and to investigate potential biomarkers predictive of the time to diagnosis. Linear mixed model analyses identified associations linking lower levels of fibroblast growth factor‐2 (FGF‐2 <em>p</em> = 7.2 × 10−4) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF‐α, <em>p</em> = 6.5 × 10−5) and BCL incidence. Analyses stratified by histological subtypes identified inverse associations for MM subtype including FGF‐2 (<em>p</em> = 7.8 × 10−7), TGF‐α (<em>p</em> = 4.08 × 10−5), fractalkine (<em>p</em> = 1.12 × 10−3), monocyte chemotactic protein‐3 (<em>p</em> = 1.36 × 10−4), macrophage inflammatory protein 1‐alpha (<em>p</em> = 4.6 × 10−4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (<em>p</em> = 4.23 × 10−5). Our results also provided marginal support for already reported associations between chemokines and diffuse large BCL (DLBCL) and cytokines and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Case‐only analyses showed that Granulocyte‐macrophage colony stimulating factor levels were consistently higher closer to diagnosis, which provides further evidence of its role in tumor progression. In conclusion, our study suggests a role of growth‐factors in the incidence of MM and of chemokine and cytokine regulation in DLBCL and CLL.</p>
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