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Sökning: WFRF:(Combes F.)

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1.
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2.
  • Coustenis, A., et al. (författare)
  • TandEM : Titan and Enceladus mission
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 23:3, s. 893-946
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (MontgolfiSre) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere.
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3.
  • Braine, J., et al. (författare)
  • Cool gas and dust in M33: Results from the HERschel M33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present an analysis of the first space-based far-IR-submm observations of M33, which measure the emission from the cool dust and resolve the giant molecular cloud complexes. With roughly half-solar abundances, M33 is a first step towards young low-metallicity galaxies where the submm may be able to provide an alternative to CO mapping to measure their H-2 content. In this Letter, we measure the dust emission cross-section sigma using SPIRE and recent CO and HI observations; a variation in s is present from a near-solar neighborhood cross-section to about half-solar with the maximum being south of the nucleus. Calculating the total H column density from the measured dust temperature and cross-section, and then subtracting the HI column, yields a morphology similar to that observed in CO. The H-2/HI mass ratio decreases from about unity to well below 10% and is about 15% averaged over the optical disk. The single most important observation to reduce the potentially large systematic errors is to complete the CO mapping of M33.
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4.
  • Gratier, P., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular and atomic gas in the Local Group galaxy M 33
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 522:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present high-resolution large-scale observations of the molecular and atomic gas in the Local Group galaxy M 33. The observations were carried out using the HEterodyne Receiver Array (HERA) at the 30 m IRAM telescope in the CO(2-1) line, achieving a resolution of 12 '' x 2.6 km s(-1), enabling individual giant molecular clouds (GMCs) to be resolved. The observed region is 650 square arcminutes mainly along the major axis and out to a radius of 8.5 kpc, and covers entirely the 2' x 40' radial strip observed with the HIFI and PACS Spectrometers as part of the HERM33ES Herschel key program. The achieved sensitivity in main-beam temperature is 20-50 mK at 2.6 km s(-1) velocity resolution. The CO(2-1) luminosity of the observed region is 1.7 +/- 0.1 x 10(7) K km s(-1) pc(2) and is estimated to be 2.8 +/- 0.3 x 10(7) K km s(-1) pc(2) for the entire galaxy, corresponding to H-2 masses of 1.9 x 10(8) M-circle dot and 3.3 x 10(8) M-circle dot respectively (including He), calculated with N(H-2)/ICO(1-0) twice the Galactic value due to the half-solar metallicity of M 33. The HI 21 cm VLA archive observations were reduced, and the mosaic was imaged and cleaned using the multi-scale task in the CASA software package, yielding a series of datacubes with resolutions ranging from 5 '' to 25 ''. The HI mass within a radius of 8.5 kpc is estimated to be 1.4 x 10(9) M-circle dot. The azimuthally averaged CO surface brightness decreases exponentially with a scale length of 1.9 +/- 0.1 kpc whereas the atomic gas surface density is constant at Sigma(HI) = 6 +/- 2 M-circle dot pc(-2) deprojected to face-on. For an N(H-2)/ICO(1-0) conversion factor twice that of the Milky Way, the central kiloparsec H-2 surface density is Sigma(H2) = 8.5 +/- 0.2 M-circle dot pc(-2). The star formation rate per unit molecular gas (SF efficiency, the rate of transformation of molecular gas into stars), as traced by the ratio of CO to H-alpha and FIR brightness, is constant with radius. The SFE, with a N(H-2)/ICO(1-0) factor twice galactic, appears 2-4 times greater than for large spiral galaxies. A morphological comparison of molecular and atomic gas with tracers of star formation is presented showing good agreement between these maps both in terms of peaks and holes. A few exceptions are noted. Several spectra, including those of a molecular cloud situated more than 8 kpc from the galaxy center, are presented.
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5.
  • Kramer, C., et al. (författare)
  • PACS and SPIRE photometer maps of M33: First results of the HERschel M33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Within the framework of the HERM33ES key program, we are studying the star forming interstellar medium in the nearby, metal-poor spiral galaxy M33, exploiting the high resolution and sensitivity of Herschel. Aims. We use PACS and SPIRE maps at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 mu m wavelength, to study the variation of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with galacto-centric distance. Methods. Detailed SED modeling is performed using azimuthally averaged fluxes in elliptical rings of 2 kpc width, out to 8 kpc galacto-centric distance. Simple isothermal and two-component grey body models, with fixed dust emissivity index, are fitted to the SEDs between 24 mu m and 500 mu m using also MIPS/Spitzer data, to derive first estimates of the dust physical conditions. Results. The far-infrared and submillimeter maps reveal the branched, knotted spiral structure of M33. An underlying diffuse disk is seen in all SPIRE maps (250-500 mu m). Two component fits to the SEDs agree better than isothermal models with the observed, total and radially averaged flux densities. The two component model, with beta fixed at 1.5, best fits the global and the radial SEDs. The cold dust component clearly dominates; the relative mass of the warm component is less than 0.3% for all the fits. The temperature of the warm component is not well constrained and is found to be about 60 K +/- 10 K. The temperature of the cold component drops significantly from similar to 24 K in the inner 2 kpc radius to 13 K beyond 6 kpc radial distance, for the best fitting model. The gas-to-dust ratio for beta = 1.5, averaged over the galaxy, is higher than the solar value by a factor of 1.5 and is roughly in agreement with the subsolar metallicity of M33.
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6.
  • Boquien, M., et al. (författare)
  • Measuring star formation with resolved observations: the test case of M 33
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Measuring star formation on a local scale is important to constrain star formation laws. It is not clear yet, however, whether and how the measure of star formation is affected by the spatial scale at which a galaxy is observed. Aims. We wish to understand the impact of the resolution on the determination of the spatially resolved star formation rate (SFR) and other directly associated physical parameters such as the attenuation. Methods. We carried out a multi-scale, pixel-by-pixel study of the nearby galaxy M33. Assembling FUV, H alpha, 8 mu m, 24 mu m, 70 mu m, and 100 mu m maps, we have systematically compared the emission in individual bands with various SFR estimators from a resolution of 33 pc to 2084 pc. Results. There are strong, scale-dependent, discrepancies of up to a factor 3 between monochromatic SFR estimators and H alpha + 24 mu m. The scaling factors between individual IR bands and the SFR show a strong dependence on the spatial scale and on the intensity of star formation. Finally, strong variations of the differential reddening between the nebular emission and the stellar continuum are seen, depending on the specific SFR (sSFR) and on the resolution. At the finest spatial scales, there is little differential reddening at high sSFR. The differential reddening increases with decreasing sSFR. At the coarsest spatial scales the differential reddening is compatible with the canonical value found for starburst galaxies. Conclusions. Our results confirm that monochromatic estimators of the SFR are unreliable at scales smaller than 1 kpc. Furthermore, the extension of local calibrations to high-redshift galaxies presents non-trivial challenges because the properties of these systems may be poorly known.
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7.
  • Mookerjea, B., et al. (författare)
  • The Herschel M 33 extended survey (HerM33es): PACS spectroscopy of the star-forming region BCLMP 302
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 532, s. art. no. A152-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The emission line of [CII] at 158 mu m is one of the strongest cooling lines of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies. Aims. Distinguishing the relative contributions of the different ISM phases to [CII] emission is a major objective of the HerM33es program, a Herschel key project to study the ISM in the nearby spiral galaxy M 33. Methods. Using PACS, we have mapped the emission of [CII] 158 mu m, [OI] 63 mu m, and other FIR lines in a 2' x 2' region of the northern spiral arm of M 33, centered on the HII region BCLMP302. At the peak of Ha emission, we observed in addition a velocity-resolved [CII] spectrum using HIFI. We use scatterplots to compare these data with PACS 160 mu m continuum maps, and with maps of CO and HI data, at a common resolution of 12 '' or 50 pc. Maps of Ha and 24 mu m emission observed with Spitzer are used to estimate the SFR. We created maps of the [CII] and [OI] 63 mu m emission and detected [NII] 122 mu m and [NIII] 57 mu m at individual positions. Results. The [CII] line observed with HIFI is significantly broader than that of CO, and slightly blue-shifted. In addition, there is little spatial correlation between [CII] observed with PACS and CO over the mapped region. There is even less spatial correlation between [CII] and the atomic gas traced by HI. Detailed comparison of the observed intensities towards the HII region with models of photo-ionization and photon-dominated regions, confirms that a significant fraction, 20-30%, of the observed [CII] emission stems from the ionized gas and not from the molecular cloud. The gas heating efficiency, using the ratio of [CII] to the TIR as a proxy, varies between 0.07 and 1.5%, with the largest variations found outside the HII region.
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8.
  • Rousseau-Nepton, L., et al. (författare)
  • SIGNALS : I. Survey description
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 489:4, s. 5530-5546
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SIGNALS, the Star formation, Ionized Gas, and Nebular Abundances Legacy Survey, is a large observing programme designed to investigate massive star formation and HII regions in a sample of local extended galaxies. The programme will use the imaging Fourier transform spectrograph SITELLE at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Over 355 h (54.7 nights) have been allocated beginning in fall 2018 for eight consecutive semesters. Once completed, SIGNALS will provide a statistically reliable laboratory to investigate massive star formation, including over 50 000 resolved HII regions: the largest, most complete, and homogeneous data base of spectroscopically and spatially resolved extragalactic HII regions ever assembled. For each field observed, three datacubes covering the spectral bands of the filters SN1 (363386 nm), SN2 (482-513 nm), and SN3 (647-685 nm) are gathered. The spectral resolution selected for each spectral band is 1000, 1000, and 5000, respectively. As defined, the project sample will facilitate the study of small-scale nebular physics and many other phenomena linked to star formation at a mean spatial resolution of similar to 20 pc. This survey also has considerable legacy value for additional topics, including planetary nebulae, diffuse ionized gas, and supernova remnants. The purpose of this paper is to present a general outlook of the survey, notably the observing strategy, galaxy sample, and science requirements.
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9.
  • de Blok, W.J.G., et al. (författare)
  • an overview of the MHONGOOSE survey: Observing nearby galaxies with MeerKAT
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science. - 1824-8039.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MHONGOOSE is a deep survey of the neutral hydrogen distribution in a representative sample of 30 nearby disk and dwarf galaxies with H I masses from ∼ 106 to ∼ 1011 M, and luminosities from MR ∼ 12 to MR ∼ −22. The sample is selected to uniformly cover the available range in log(MHI). Our extremely deep observations, down to H I column density limits of well below 1018 cm−2 — or a few hundred times fainter than the typical H I disks in galaxies — will directly detect the effects of cold accretion from the intergalactic medium and the links with the cosmic web. These observations will be the first ever to probe the very low-column density neutral gas in galaxies at these high resolutions. Combination with data at other wavelengths, most of it already available, will enable accurate modeling of the properties and evolution of the mass components in these galaxies and link these with the effects of environment, dark matter distribution, and other fundamental properties such as halo mass and angular momentum. MHONGOOSE can already start addressing some of the SKA-1 science goals and will provide a comprehensive inventory of the processes driving the transformation and evolution of galaxies in the nearby universe at high resolution and over 5 orders of magnitude in column density. It will be a Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey that will be unsurpassed until the advent of the SKA, and can serve as a highly visible, lasting statement of MeerKAT’s capabilities.
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10.
  • Miglio, A., et al. (författare)
  • PLATO as it is : A legacy mission for Galactic archaeology
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Notes - Astronomische Nachrichten. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0004-6337 .- 1521-3994. ; 338:6, s. 644-661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deciphering the assembly history of the Milky Way is a formidable task, which becomes possible only if one can produce high-resolution chrono-chemo-kinematical maps of the Galaxy. Data from large-scale astrometric and spectroscopic surveys will soon provide us with a well-defined view of the current chemo-kinematical structure of the Milky Way, but it will only enable a blurred view on the temporal sequence that led to the present-day Galaxy. As demonstrated by the (ongoing) exploitation of data from the pioneering photometric missions CoRoT, Kepler, and K2, asteroseismology provides the way forward: solar-like oscillating giants are excellent evolutionary clocks thanks to the availability of seismic constraints on their mass and to the tight age–initial mass relation they adhere to. In this paper we identify five key outstanding questions relating to the formation and evolution of the Milky Way that will need precise and accurate ages for large samples of stars to be addressed, and we identify the requirements in terms of number of targets and the precision on the stellar properties that are needed to tackle such questions. By quantifying the asteroseismic yields expected from PLATO for red giant stars, we demonstrate that these requirements are within the capabilities of the current instrument design, provided that observations are sufficiently long to identify the evolutionary state and allow robust and precise determination of acoustic-mode frequencies. This will allow us to harvest data of sufficient quality to reach a 10% precision in age. This is a fundamental prerequisite to then reach the more ambitious goal of a similar level of accuracy, which will be possible only if we have at hand a careful appraisal of systematic uncertainties on age deriving from our limited understanding of stellar physics, a goal that conveniently falls within the main aims of PLATO's core science. We therefore strongly endorse PLATO's current design and proposed observational strategy, and conclude that PLATO, as it is, will be a legacy mission for Galactic archaeology.
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