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Sökning: WFRF:(Cong S)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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3.
  • Brownstein, Catherine A., et al. (författare)
  • An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 15:3, s. R53-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results: A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions: The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.
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5.
  • Gutman, Boris A, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of deep brain structural shape and asymmetry abnormalities in 2,833 individuals with schizophrenia compared with 3,929 healthy volunteers via the ENIGMA Consortium.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia is associated with widespread alterations in subcortical brain structure. While analytic methods have enabled more detailed morphometric characterization, findings are often equivocal. In this meta-analysis, we employed the harmonized ENIGMA shape analysis protocols to collaboratively investigate subcortical brain structure shape differences between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy control participants. The study analyzed data from 2,833 individuals with schizophrenia and 3,929 healthy control participants contributed by 21 worldwide research groups participating in the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Harmonized shape analysis protocols were applied to each site's data independently for bilateral hippocampus, amygdala, caudate, accumbens, putamen, pallidum, and thalamus obtained from T1-weighted structural MRI scans. Mass univariate meta-analyses revealed more-concave-than-convex shape differences in the hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, and thalamus in individuals with schizophrenia compared with control participants, more-convex-than-concave shape differences in the putamen and pallidum, and both concave and convex shape differences in the caudate. Patterns of exaggerated asymmetry were observed across the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus in individuals with schizophrenia compared to control participants, while diminished asymmetry encompassed ventral striatum and ventral and dorsal thalamus. Our analyses also revealed that higher chlorpromazine dose equivalents and increased positive symptom levels were associated with patterns of contiguous convex shape differences across multiple subcortical structures. Findings from our shape meta-analysis suggest that common neurobiological mechanisms may contribute to gray matter reduction across multiple subcortical regions, thus enhancing our understanding of the nature of network disorganization in schizophrenia.
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6.
  • Petrov, Dmitry, et al. (författare)
  • Machine Learning for Large-Scale Quality Control of 3D Shape Models in Neuroimaging
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Machine learning in medical imaging. MLMI (Workshop). ; 10541, s. 371-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As very large studies of complex neuroimaging phenotypes become more common, human quality assessment of MRI-derived data remains one of the last major bottlenecks. Few attempts have so far been made to address this issue with machine learning. In this work, we optimize predictive models of quality for meshes representing deep brain structure shapes. We use standard vertex-wise and global shape features computed homologously across 19 cohorts and over 7500 human-rated subjects, training kernelized Support Vector Machine and Gradient Boosted Decision Trees classifiers to detect meshes of failing quality. Our models generalize across datasets and diseases, reducing human workload by 30-70%, or equivalently hundreds of human rater hours for datasets of comparable size, with recall rates approaching inter-rater reliability.
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7.
  • Anderson, Cynthia M., et al. (författare)
  • Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2009-31 January 2010
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology Resources. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1755-098X. ; 10:3, s. 576-579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article documents the addition of 220 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Allanblackia floribunda, Amblyraja radiata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Brachycaudus helichrysi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Dissodactylus primitivus, Elodea canadensis, Ephydatia fluviatilis, Galapaganus howdenae howdenae, Hoplostethus atlanticus, Ischnura elegans, Larimichthys polyactis, Opheodrys vernalis, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Phragmidium violaceum, Pistacia vera, and Thunnus thynnus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Allanblackia gabonensis, Allanblackia stanerana, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Dacus ciliatus, Dacus demmerezi, Bactrocera zonata, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, Ceratits catoirii, Dacus punctatifrons, Ephydatia mulleri, Spongilla lacustris, Geodia cydonium, Axinella sp., Ischnura graellsii, Ischnura ramburii, Ischnura pumilio, Pistacia integerrima and Pistacia terebinthus.
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8.
  • Li, L., et al. (författare)
  • Divergence and plasticity shape adaptive potential of the Pacific oyster
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Ecology & Evolution. - 2397-334X. ; 2:11, s. 1751-1760
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The interplay between divergence and phenotypic plasticity is critical to our understanding of a species' adaptive potential under rapid climate changes. We investigated divergence and plasticity in natural populations of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas with a congeneric oyster Crassostrea angulata from southern China used as an outgroup. Genome re-sequencing of 371 oysters revealed unexpected genetic divergence in a small area that coincided with phenotypic divergence in growth, physiology, heat tolerance and gene expression across environmental gradients. These findings suggest that selection and local adaptation are pervasive and, together with limited gene flow, influence population structure. Genes showing sequence differentiation between populations also diverged in transcriptional response to heat stress. Plasticity in gene expression is positively correlated with evolved divergence, indicating that plasticity is adaptive and favoured by organisms under dynamic environments. Divergence in heat tolerance-partly through acetylation-mediated energy depression-implies differentiation in adaptive potential. Trade-offs between growth and survival may play an important role in local adaptation of oysters and other marine invertebrates.
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9.
  • Yoo, S. J. B., et al. (författare)
  • Spectral phase encoded time spread optical code division multiple access technology for next generation communication networks Invited
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Optical Networking. - 1536-5379. ; 6:10, s. 1210-1227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We overview and summarize the progress of the spectral phase encoded time spreading (SPECTS) optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) technology. Recent progress included a demonstration of a 320 Gbit/s (32-user x 10 Gbit/s) all-optical passive optical network testbed based on the SPECTS O-CDMA technology and a theoretical prediction of the spectral efficiency at 100% and above. In particular, InP-based integrated photonics allows implementation of SPECTS O-CDMA transmitters and receivers monolithically integrated on a chip. The integrated InP chip technology not only allows robust and compact configurations for practical and low-cost O-CDMA network deployments but also offers code reconfigurations at rapid rates for secure communication applications.
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10.
  • Middleton, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Global Public Perceptions of Genomic Data Sharing : What Shapes the Willingness to Donate DNA and Health Data?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 107:4, s. 743-752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analyzing genomic data across populations is central to understanding the role of genetic factors in health and disease. Successful data sharing relies on public support, which requires attention to whether people around the world are willing to donate their data that are then subsequently shared with others for research. However, studies of such public perceptions are geographically limited and do not enable comparison. This paper presents results from a very large public survey on attitudes toward genomic data sharing. Data from 36,268 individuals across 22 countries (gathered in 15 languages) are presented. In general, publics across the world do not appear to be aware of, nor familiar with, the concepts of DNA, genetics, and genomics. Willingness to donate one's DNA and health data for research is relatively low, and trust in the process of data's being shared with multiple users (e.g., doctors, researchers, governments) is also low. Participants were most willing to donate DNA or health information for research when the recipient was specified as a medical doctor and least willing to donate when the recipient was a for-profit researcher. Those who were familiar with genetics and who were trusting of the users asking for data were more likely to be willing to donate. However, less than half of participants trusted more than one potential user of data, although this varied across countries. Genetic information was not uniformly seen as different from other forms of health information, but there was an association between seeing genetic information as special in some way compared to other health data and increased willingness to donate. The global perspective provided by our "Your DNA, Your Say" study is valuable for informing the development of international policy and practice for sharing genomic data. It highlights that the research community not only needs to be worthy of trust by the public, but also urgent steps need to be taken to authentically communicate why genomic research is necessary and how data donation, and subsequent sharing, is integral to this.
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