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Sökning: WFRF:(Connolly CG)

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1.
  • Han, L. K. M., et al. (författare)
  • Brain aging in major depressive disorder: results from the ENIGMA major depressive disorder working group
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of brain atrophy, aging-related diseases, and mortality. We examined potential advanced brain aging in adult MDD patients, and whether this process is associated with clinical characteristics in a large multicenter international dataset. We performed a mega-analysis by pooling brain measures derived from T1-weighted MRI scans from 19 samples worldwide. Healthy brain aging was estimated by predicting chronological age (18–75 years) from 7 subcortical volumes, 34 cortical thickness and 34 surface area, lateral ventricles and total intracranial volume measures separately in 952 male and 1236 female controls from the ENIGMA MDD working group. The learned model coefficients were applied to 927 male controls and 986 depressed males, and 1199 female controls and 1689 depressed females to obtain independent unbiased brain-based age predictions. The difference between predicted “brain age” and chronological age was calculated to indicate brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD). On average, MDD patients showed a higher brain-PAD of +1.08 (SE 0.22) years (Cohen’s d = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.08–0.20) compared with controls. However, this difference did not seem to be driven by specific clinical characteristics (recurrent status, remission status, antidepressant medication use, age of onset, or symptom severity). This highly powered collaborative effort showed subtle patterns of age-related structural brain abnormalities in MDD. Substantial within-group variance and overlap between groups were observed. Longitudinal studies of MDD and somatic health outcomes are needed to further assess the clinical value of these brain-PAD estimates. © 2020, The Author(s).
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2.
  • Blom, Eva Henje, et al. (författare)
  • Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of a Novel RDoC-Based Treatment Program for Adolescent Depression : "Training for Awareness Resilience and Action" (TARA)-A Pilot Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry. - 1664-0640 .- 1664-0640. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The novel group treatment program Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA) was developed to target specific mechanisms based on neuroscience findings in adolescent depression and framed within the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria. TARA contains training of autonomic and emotional self-regulation, interoceptive awareness, relational skills, and value-based committed action.Methods: We performed a single-arm trial to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of TARA in reducing depression and anxiety levels and assessed whether the specific targeted domains of function reflected the hypothesized symptom change. Twenty-six adolescents (14–18 years old, 7 males and 19 females) participated in the 12-week group program. Assessment was performed before (T0), immediately after (T1), and 3 months after the end of TARA (T2).Results: Significant improvement was seen in depression symptoms (Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale Second Edition) between T0–T1 (t-value = −3.56, p = 0.002, CI = −6.64, −1.77) and T0–T2 (t-value = −4.17, p < 0.001, CI = −11.20, −3.75) and anxiety symptoms (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children) between T0–T1 (t-value = −2.26, p = 0.033, CI = −4.61, −0.21) and T0–T2 (t-value = −3.06, p = 0.006, 95% confidence interval = −9.02, −1.73). Significant improvements in psychological flexibility, sleep, and mindfulness skills were also found between T0 and T2.Limitations: The sample size was small without a control condition. The pilot design did not allow for testing the hypothesized brain changes and effect of TARA on relevant systemic biomarkers.Conclusion: TARA is feasible in a sample of clinically depressed and/or anxious adolescents and preliminary efficacy was demonstrated by reduced depression and anxiety symptoms. The specific symptom and behavioral outcomes corresponded well with the hypothesized mechanisms of change.
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3.
  • Connolly, Colm G., et al. (författare)
  • Resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala and longitudinal changes in depression severity in adolescent depression
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 207, s. 86-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) rises during adolescence, yet the neural mechanisms of MDD during this key developmental period are unclear. Altered amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been associated with both adolescent and adult MDD, as well as symptom improvement in response to treatment in adults. However, no study to date has examined whether amygdala RSFC is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity in adolescents.Method: We examined group differences in amygdala RSFC between medication-naïve depressed adolescents (N=48) and well-matched healthy controls (N=53) cross-sectionally. We then longitudinally examined whether baseline amygdala RSFC was associated with change in depression symptoms three months later in a subset of the MDD group (N=24).Results: Compared to healthy controls, depressed adolescents showed reduced amygdala-based RSFC with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Within the depressed group, more positive baseline RSFC between the amygdala and insulae was associated with greater reduction in depression symptoms three months later.Limitations: Only a subset of depressed participants was assessed at follow-up and treatment type and delivery were not standardized.Conclusions: Adolescent depression may be characterized by dysfunction of frontolimbic circuits (amygdala-DLPFC, amygdala-VMPFC) underpinning emotional regulation, whereas those circuits (amygdala-insula) subserving affective integration may index changes in depression symptom severity and may therefore potentially serve as a candidate biomarker for treatment response. Furthermore, these results suggest that the biomarkers of MDD presence are distinct from those associated with change in depression symptoms over time.
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4.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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5.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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6.
  • Henje Blom, Eva, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 178, s. 215-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad-happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL).METHODS: Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli.RESULTS: The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group.LIMITATIONS: Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression.CONCLUSIONS: Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities.
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7.
  • Henje Blom, Eva, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume, and whether these measures relate to one another. In 54 unmedicated adolescents (13-18 years) with major depressive disorder and 63 well-matched healthy controls, telomere length was assessed from saliva using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, and bilateral hippocampal volumes were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. After adjusting for age and sex (and total brain volume in the hippocampal analysis), adolescents with major depressive disorder exhibited significantly shorter telomere length and significantly smaller right, but not left hippocampal volume. When corrected for age, sex, diagnostic group and total brain volume, telomere length was not significantly associated with left or right hippocampal volume, suggesting that these cellular and neural processes may be mechanistically distinct during adolescence. Our findings suggest that shortening of telomere length and reduction of hippocampal volume are already present in early-onset major depressive disorder and thus unlikely to be only a result of accumulated years of exposure to major depressive disorder.
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8.
  • Henje Blom, Eva, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • The development of an RDoC-based treatment program for adolescent depression : "Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action" (TARA).
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in human neuroscience. - 1662-5161. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8-20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression - Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA) - that is based on current understanding of developmental and depression neurobiology. The TARA model is aligned with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) of the National Institute of Mental Health. In this article, we first address the relevance of RDoC to adolescent depression. Second, we identify the major RDoC domains of function involved in adolescent depression and organize them in a way that gives priority to domains thought to be driving the psychopathology. Third, we select therapeutic training strategies for TARA based on current scientific evidence of efficacy for the prioritized domains of function in a manner that maximizes time, resources, and feasibility. The TARA model takes into consideration the developmental limitation in top-down cognitive control in adolescence and promotes bottom-up strategies such as vagal afference to decrease limbic hyperactivation and its secondary effects. The program has been informed by mindfulness-based therapy and yoga, as well as modern psychotherapeutic techniques. The treatment program is semi-manualized, progressive, and applied in a module-based approach designed for a group setting that is to be conducted one session per week for 12 weeks. We hope that this work may form the basis for a novel and more effective treatment strategy for adolescent depression, as well as broaden the discussion on how to address this challenge.
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9.
  • Henje Blom, Eva, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • The neuroscience and context of adolescent depression
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 105:4, s. 358-365
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adolescent depression is a growing public health concern with an increased risk of negative health outcomes, including suicide. The use of antidepressants and psychotherapy has not halted its increasing prevalence, and there is a critical need for effective prevention and treatment. We reviewed the neuroscience of adolescent depression, with a focus on the neurocircuitry of sustained threat and summarised contextual factors that have an impact on brain development and the pathophysiology of depression. We also reviewed novel treatment models.Conclusion: Attention to the relevant neurocircuitry and contextual factors implicated in adolescent depression is necessary to advance prevention and treatment development.
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10.
  • Ho, Tiffany C, et al. (författare)
  • Emotion-Dependent Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Network in Adolescent Depression.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - 0006-3223 .- 1873-2402. ; 78:9, s. 635-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging research suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) in both adults and adolescents is marked by aberrant connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) during resting state. However, emotional dysregulation is also a key feature of MDD. No studies to date have examined emotion-related DMN pathology in adolescent depression. Comprehensively understanding the dynamics of DMN connectivity across brain states in individuals with depression with short disease histories could provide insight into the etiology of MDD.METHODS: We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data during an emotion identification task and during resting state from 26 medication-free adolescents (13-17 years old) with MDD and 37 well-matched healthy control subjects. We examined between-group differences in blood oxygenation level-dependent task responses and emotion-dependent and resting-state functional connectivity of the two primary nodes of the DMN: medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Additionally, we examined between-group differences in DMN functional connectivity and its relationship to depression severity and onset.RESULTS: Relative to healthy control subjects, unmedicated adolescents with MDD demonstrated reduced medial prefrontal cortex and PCC emotion-related deactivation and greater medial prefrontal cortex and PCC emotion-dependent functional connectivity with precuneus, cingulate gyrus, and striatum/subcallosal cingulate gyrus. The PCC-subcallosal cingulate connectivity remained inflexibly elevated in the subjects with MDD versus healthy control subjects during resting state. Stronger PCC emotion-dependent functional connectivity was associated with greater depression severity and an earlier age of depression onset.CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent depression is associated with inflexibly elevated DMN connections. Given more recent evidence of DMN maturation throughout adolescence, our findings suggest that early-onset depression adversely affects normal development of functional brain networks.
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