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1.
  • Aaron-Morrison, A. P., et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2016
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS). - 0003-0007 .- 1520-0477. ; 98:8, s. S1-S280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44 degrees C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0 degrees C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8 degrees C, representing a 3.5 degrees C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute similar to 7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01 degrees C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st century-to-date of +0.162 degrees C decade(-1) is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100 degrees C decade(-1). Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Nino at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Nina contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.
2.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  •  
3.
  • Bixby, Honor, et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3,4,5,6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
4.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • Combined measurement and QCD analysis of the inclusive e(+/-)p scattering cross sections at HERA
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1126-6708. ; :1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A combination is presented of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised e(+/-)p scattering at HERA during the period 1994-2000. The data span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q(2), and in Bjorken x. The combination method used takes the correlations of systematic uncertainties into account, resulting in an improved accuracy. The combined data are the sole input in a NLO QCD analysis which determines a new set of parton distributions, HERAPDF1.0, with small experimental uncertainties. This set includes an estimate of the model and parametrisation uncertainties of the fit result.
  •  
5.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • Events with an isolated lepton and missing transverse momentum and measurement of W production at HERA
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1126-6708. ; 2010:3, s. 1-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing trans verse momentum produced in e(+/-)p collisions is performed with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at HERA. The data were taken in the period 1994-2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.98 fb(-1). The observed event yields are in good overall agreement with the Standard Model prediction, which is dominated by single W production. In the e(+)p data, at large hadronic transverse momentum P-T(X) > 25GeV, a total of 23 events are observed compared to a prediction of 14.0 +/- 1.9. The total single W boson production cross section is measured as 1.06 +/- 0.16 (stat.) +/- 0.07 (sys.) pb, in agreement with an Standard Model (SM) expectation of 1.26 +/- 0.19 pb.
6.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • Multi-leptons with high transverse momentum at HERA
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer Verlag. - 1126-6708. ; :10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Events with at least two high transverse momentum leptons (electrons or muons) are studied using the H1 and ZEUS detectors at HERA with an integrated luminosity of 0.94 fb(-1). The observed numbers of events are in general agreement with the Standard Model predictions. Seven di- and tri-lepton events are observed in e(+)p collision data with a scalar sum of the lepton transverse momenta above 100 GeV while 1.94 +/- 0.17 events are expected. Such events are not observed in e(-)p collisions for which 1.19 +/- 0.12 are predicted. Total visible and differential di-electron and di-muon photoproduction cross sections are extracted in a restricted phase space dominated by photon-photon collisions.
  •  
7.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Search for associated Higgs boson production WH -> WWW*-> l(+/-)nu l('+/-)nu(')+X in p(p)over-bar collisions at root S=1.96 TeV
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 97:15, s. 151804
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a search for associated Higgs boson production in the process p (p) over bar -> WH -> WWW*-> l(+/-)nu l('+/-)nu(')+X in final states containing two like-sign isolated electrons or muons (e(+/-)e(+/-), e(+/-)mu(+/-), or mu(+/-)mu(+/-)). The search is based on D0 run II data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 360-380 pb(-1). No excess is observed over the predicted standard model background. We set 95% C.L. upper limits on sigma ->(p (p) over bar WH) x Br(H -> WW*) between 3.2 and 2.8 pb for Higgs boson masses from 115 to 175 GeV.
  •  
8.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Search for the rare decay B-s(0)->phi mu(+)mu(-) with the D0 detector
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology. - 1550-7998. ; 74:3, s. 031107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a search for the flavor-changing neutral current decay B-s(0)->phi mu(+)mu(-) using about 0.45 fb(-1) of data collected in p (p) over bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We find an upper limit on the branching ratio of this decay normalized to B-s(0)-> J/psi phi of B(B-s(0)->phi mu(+)mu(-))/B(B-s(0)-> J/psi phi)< 4.4x10(-3) at the 95% C.L. Using the central value of the world average branching fraction of B-s(0)-> J/psi phi, the limit corresponds to B(B-s(0)->phi mu(+)mu(-))< 4.1x10(-6) at the 95% C.L., the most stringent upper bound to date.
  •  
9.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • Combined inclusive diffractive cross sections measured with forward proton spectrometers in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer Berlin Heidelberg. - 1434-6044. ; 72:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A combination of the inclusive diffractive cross section measurements made by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA is presented. The analysis uses samples of diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering data at a centre-of-mass energy root s = 318 GeV where leading protons are detected by dedicated spectrometers. Correlations of systematic uncertainties are taken into account, resulting in an improved precision of the cross section measurement which reaches 6 % for the most precise points. The combined data cover the range 2.5 < Q(2) < 200 GeV2 in photon virtuality, 0.00035 < x(P) < 0.09 in proton fractional momentum loss, 0.09 < vertical bar t vertical bar < 0.55 GeV2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 0.0018 < beta < 0.816 in beta = x/x(P), where x is the Bjorken scaling variable.
10.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the B-s(0) lifetime using semileptonic decays
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 97:24, s. 241801
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a measurement of the B-s(0) lifetime in the semileptonic decay channel B-s(0)-&gt; D-s(-)mu(+)nu X (and its charge conjugate), using approximately 0.4 fb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector during 2002-2004. Using 5176 reconstructed D-s(-)mu(+) signal events, we have measured the B-s(0) lifetime to be tau(B-s(0))=1.398 +/- 0.044(stat)(-0.025)(+0.028)(syst) ps. This is the most precise measurement of the B-s(0) lifetime to date.
  •  
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