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Sökning: WFRF:(Corfield Julie)

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1.
  • Alahmadi, Fahad, et al. (författare)
  • Measures of adherence in patients with severe asthma prescribed systemic steroids in the U-BIOPRED cohort
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: Rates of sub-optimal adherence to medications in asthma range up to 70%; the impact in severe asthma is likely to be particularly high. We measured self-reported adherence in participants in the U-BIOPRED cohort prescribed daily prednisolone using the Medication Adherence Response Scale (MARS), and compared to measured urinary prednisolone and metabolites in order to determine: 1. the prevalence of suboptimal adherence by each method; 2. the ability of MARS to predict urinary steroid detection.Methods: Participants completed the MARS, and/or provided urine samples (analysed for prednisolone and metabolites by LCMS). The performance characteristics of the MARS predicting undetected urinary steroid were calculated in the subgroup having both tests.Results: 181 participants currently taking regular oral corticosteroids were included, 59% female, mean (SD) age 54(12)yrs, FEV1 64.7(20.4)% predicted. Sub-optimal adherence (MARS score < 4.5) was reported in 62 participants, and 76 did not have detectable urinary prednisolone or metabolites. Good adherence by both methods was detected in only 52 participants (34%, see table). There was no difference in daily prednisolone dose between detectable and undetectable metabolites groups (p=0.848).Conclusion: Low levels of adherence to treatment in severe asthma is a common problem, when measured either directly or self-reported. There was very poor agreement (48% concordance) between these two methods, and we suggest that, for now both approaches should be used.
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2.
  • Brinkman, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Identification and prospective stability of electronic nose (eNose)-derived inflammatory phenotypes in patients with severe asthma
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - Elsevier. - 0091-6749. ; 143:5, s. 1811-1820.e7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Severe asthma is a heterogeneous condition, as shown by independent cluster analyses based on demographic, clinical, and inflammatory characteristics. A next step is to identify molecularly driven phenotypes using “omics” technologies. Molecular fingerprints of exhaled breath are associated with inflammation and can qualify as noninvasive assessment of severe asthma phenotypes.Objectives: We aimed (1) to identify severe asthma phenotypes using exhaled metabolomic fingerprints obtained from a composite of electronic noses (eNoses) and (2) to assess the stability of eNose-derived phenotypes in relation to withinpatient clinical and inflammatory changes.Methods: In this longitudinal multicenter study exhaled breath samples were taken from an unselected subset of adults with severe asthma from the U-BIOPRED cohort. Exhaled metabolites were analyzed centrally by using an assembly of eNoses. Unsupervised Ward clustering enhanced by similarity profile analysis together with K-means clustering was performed. For internal validation, partitioning around medoids and topological data analysis were applied. Samples at 12 to 18 months of prospective follow-up were used to assess longitudinal within-patient stability.Results: Data were available for 78 subjects (age, 55 years [interquartile range, 45-64 years]; 41% male). Three eNosedriven clusters (n = 26/33/19) were revealed, showing differences in circulating eosinophil (P = .045) and neutrophil (P = .017) percentages and ratios of patients using oral corticosteroids (P = .035). Longitudinal within-patient cluster stability was associated with changes in sputum eosinophil percentages (P = .045).Conclusions: We have identified and followed up exhaled molecular phenotypes of severe asthma, which were associated with changing inflammatory profile and oral steroid use. This suggests that breath analysis can contribute to the management of severe asthma.
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3.
  • Burg, Dominic, et al. (författare)
  • Large-Scale Label-Free Quantitative Mapping of the Sputum Proteome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Proteome Research. - American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1535-3893. ; 17:6, s. 2072-2091
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analysis of induced sputum supematant is a minimally invasive approach to study the epithelial lining fluid and, thereby, provide insight into normal lung biology and the pathobiology of lung diseases. We present here a novel proteomics approach to sputum analysis developed within the U-BIOPRED (unbiased biomarkers predictive of respiratory disease outcomes) international project. We present practical and analytical techniques to optimize the detection of robust biomarkers in proteomic studies. The normal sputum proteome was derived using data-independent HDMSE applied to 40 healthy nonsmoking participants, which provides an essential baseline from which to compare modulation of protein expression in respiratory diseases. The "core" sputum proteome (proteins detected in >= 40% of participants) was composed of 284 proteins, and the extended proteome (proteins detected in >= 3 participants) contained 1666 proteins. Quality control procedures were developed to optimize the accuracy and consistency of measurement of sputum proteins and analyze the distribution of sputum proteins in the healthy population. The analysis showed that quantitation of proteins by HDMSE is influenced by several factors, with some proteins being measured in all participants' samples and with low measurement variance between samples from the same patient. The measurement of some proteins is highly variable between repeat analyses, susceptible to sample processing effects, or difficult to accurately quantify by mass spectrometry. Other proteins show high interindividual variance. We also highlight that the sputum proteome of healthy individuals is related to sputum neutrophil levels, but not gender or allergic sensitization. We illustrate the importance of design and interpretation of disease biomarker studies considering such protein population and technical measurement variance.
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4.
  • Kuo, Chih-Hsi Scott, et al. (författare)
  • A transcriptome-driven analysis of epithelial brushings and bronchial biopsies to define asthma phenotypes in U-BIOPRED
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - 1073-449X. ; 194:4, s. 443-455
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease driven by diverse immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms. We used transcriptomic profiling of airway tissues to help define asthma phenotypes.METHODS: The transcriptome from bronchial biopsies and epithelial brushings of 107 moderate-to-severe asthmatics were annotated by gene-set variation analysis (GSVA) using 42 gene-signatures relevant to asthma, inflammation and immune function. Topological data analysis (TDA) of clinical and histological data was used to derive clusters and the nearest shrunken centroid algorithm used for signature refinement.RESULTS: 9 GSVA signatures expressed in bronchial biopsies and airway epithelial brushings distinguished two distinct asthma subtypes associated with high expression of T-helper type 2 (Th-2) cytokines and lack of corticosteroid response (Group 1 and Group 3). Group 1 had the highest submucosal eosinophils, high exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels, exacerbation rates and oral corticosteroid (OCS) use whilst Group 3 patients showed the highest levels of sputum eosinophils and had a high BMI. In contrast, Group 2 and Group 4 patients had an 86% and 64% probability of having non-eosinophilic inflammation. Using machine-learning tools, we describe an inference scheme using the currently-available inflammatory biomarkers sputum eosinophilia and exhaled nitric oxide levels along with OCS use that could predict the subtypes of gene expression within bronchial biopsies and epithelial cells with good sensitivity and specificity.CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of a transcriptomic-driven approach to phenotyping that segments patients who may benefit the most from specific agents that target Th2-mediated inflammation and/or corticosteroid insensitivity.
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5.
  • Kuo, Chih-Hsi S., et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of airway eosinophils in airway wall remodeling in asthma : Role of MMP-10 and MET
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0105-4538. ; 74:6, s. 1102-1112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Eosinophils play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma being implicated in airway epithelial damage and airway wall remodeling. We determined the genes associated with airway remodeling and eosinophilic inflammation in patients with asthma. Methods We analyzed the transcriptomic data from bronchial biopsies of 81 patients with moderate-to-severe asthma of the U-BIOPRED cohort. Expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix arrays on total RNA. Transcription binding site analysis used the PRIMA algorithm. Localization of proteins was by immunohistochemistry. Results Using stringent false discovery rate analysis, MMP-10 and MET were significantly overexpressed in biopsies with high mucosal eosinophils (HE) compared to low mucosal eosinophil (LE) numbers. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed increased expression of MMP-10 and MET in bronchial epithelial cells and in subepithelial inflammatory and resident cells in asthmatic biopsies. Using less-stringent conditions (raw P-value < 0.05, log2 fold change > 0.5), we defined a 73-gene set characteristic of the HE compared to the LE group. Thirty-three of 73 genes drove the pathway annotation that included extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, mast cell activation, CC-chemokine receptor binding, circulating immunoglobulin complex, serine protease inhibitors, and microtubule bundle formation pathways. Genes including MET and MMP10 involved in ECM organization correlated positively with submucosal thickness. Transcription factor binding site analysis identified two transcription factors, ETS-1 and SOX family proteins, that showed positive correlation with MMP10 and MET expression. Conclusion Pathways of airway remodeling and cellular inflammation are associated with submucosal eosinophilia. MET and MMP-10 likely play an important role in these processes.
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6.
  • Lefaudeux, Diane, et al. (författare)
  • U-BIOPRED clinical adult asthma clusters linked to a subset of sputum omics
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749. ; 139:6, s. 1797-1807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease in which there is a differential response to asthma treatments. This heterogeneity needs to be evaluated so that a personalized management approach can be provided.OBJECTIVES: We stratified patients with moderate-to-severe asthma based on clinicophysiologic parameters and performed an omics analysis of sputum.METHODS: Partition-around-medoids clustering was applied to a training set of 266 asthmatic participants from the European Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Diseases Outcomes (U-BIOPRED) adult cohort using 8 prespecified clinic-physiologic variables. This was repeated in a separate validation set of 152 asthmatic patients. The clusters were compared based on sputum proteomics and transcriptomics data.RESULTS: Four reproducible and stable clusters of asthmatic patients were identified. The training set cluster T1 consists of patients with well-controlled moderate-to-severe asthma, whereas cluster T2 is a group of patients with late-onset severe asthma with a history of smoking and chronic airflow obstruction. Cluster T3 is similar to cluster T2 in terms of chronic airflow obstruction but is composed of nonsmokers. Cluster T4 is predominantly composed of obese female patients with uncontrolled severe asthma with increased exacerbations but with normal lung function. The validation set exhibited similar clusters, demonstrating reproducibility of the classification. There were significant differences in sputum proteomics and transcriptomics between the clusters. The severe asthma clusters (T2, T3, and T4) had higher sputum eosinophilia than cluster T1, with no differences in sputum neutrophil counts and exhaled nitric oxide and serum IgE levels.CONCLUSION: Clustering based on clinicophysiologic parameters yielded 4 stable and reproducible clusters that associate with different pathobiological pathways.
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7.
  • Perotin-Collard, Jeanne-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Subtypes of eosinophilic asthma with discrete gene pathway phenotypes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - European Respiratory Society Journals. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Blood eosinophil counts ≥0.3x109/L are used to define Type-2, eosinophilic asthma. However, differential responses to T2 biologics of patients with eosinophilic asthma suggests that this may be a heterogeneous phenotype with subsets driven by different molecular mechanisms.Methods: Blood transcriptomic data, acquired from 99 severe asthmatics from the U-BIOPRED study (62% female, mean age 54 yr, 41% on oral steroids), were clustered by topological data analysis and cluster boundaries defined by the MORSE method. Gene pathway signatures were identified by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.Results: Analysis revealed 3 clusters with different modulated gene pathways, i.e. molecular phenotypes. Subtype 1 had high IFN-γ, low IL5, low IL13 and low IL17 gene expression, with reduced glucocorticoid-induced gene expression. Subtype 2 had low IFNγ, high IL5, high IL13 and low IL17 gene expression. Subtype 3 had low IFNγ, high IL5, high IL13 and high IL17 gene expression. Pathway analysis suggested a strong steroid response in Subtypes 2 and 3. Clinically, the three clusters were not different in respect of age, gender, prevalence of atopy, blood or sputum eosinophil counts. Subtype 3 was characterized by high neutrophil counts in blood and bronchial epithelium, frequent sinus disease and asthma exacerbations, OCS treatment, low allergic sensitisation and low exhaled NO. Subtype 1 was characterized by high exhaled NO and more frequent IgE therapy.Conclusion: This study suggests that eosinophilic severe asthma (≥0.3x109/L) can be stratified further into 3 subtypes with distinct gene expression profiles that could be developed as molecular diagnostic biomarkers to guide treatment and thereby improve patient outcomes.
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9.
  • Schofield, James P. R., et al. (författare)
  • Stratification of asthma phenotypes by airway proteomic signatures
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 144:1, s. 70-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Stratification by eosinophil and neutrophil counts increases our understanding of asthma and helps target therapy, but there is room for improvement in our accuracy in prediction of treatment responses and a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Objective: We sought to identify molecular subphenotypes of asthma defined by proteomic signatures for improved stratification. Methods: Unbiased label-free quantitative mass spectrometry and topological data analysis were used to analyze the proteomes of sputum supernatants from 246 participants (206 asthmatic patients) as a novel means of asthma stratification. Microarray analysis of sputum cells provided transcriptomics data additionally to inform on underlying mechanisms. Results: Analysis of the sputum proteome resulted in 10 clusters (ie, proteotypes) based on similarity in proteomic features, representing discrete molecular subphenotypes of asthma. Overlaying granulocyte counts onto the 10 clusters as metadata further defined 3 of these as highly eosinophilic, 3 as highly neutrophilic, and 2 as highly atopic with relatively low granulocytic inflammation. For each of these 3 phenotypes, logistic regression analysis identified candidate protein biomarkers, and matched transcriptomic data pointed to differentially activated underlying mechanisms. Conclusion: This study provides further stratification of asthma currently classified based on quantification of granulocytic inflammation and provided additional insight into their underlying mechanisms, which could become targets for novel therapies.
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10.
  • Schofield, James P. R., et al. (författare)
  • Topological data analysis (TDA) of U-BIOPRED paediatric peripheral blood gene expression identified asthma phenotypes characterised by alternative splicing of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Molecular stratification of childhood asthma could enable targeted therapy.Aims: Unbiased analysis of gene expression in paediatric severe (SA) and moderate/mild asthma (MA) blood samples to identify sub-phenotypes.Methods: Transcriptomic profiling by microarray analysis of blood from the U-BIOPRED paediatric cohort (Fleming ERJ 2015), pre- and school-age children, (SApre, n=62; MApre, n=42; SAsc, n=75 and MAsc, n=37). Topological data analysis (TDA) was used for unbiased clustering.Results: Sub-phenotypes, P1, P2, P3 and P4 were identified and are highlighted in the TDA network in the figure and a heatmap of selected variables. P1 (38% of the cohort, median 11 yrs) was characterised by low expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA splice variant with a long 3’ UTR (q = 2.43E-17), but no significant difference in the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA splice variant with a short 3’ UTR. In P1, COX2 expression was up (q = 1.89E-06) and IFN-γ was down (q = 5.61E-06), characteristics of a decreased steroid response.Conclusion: Unbiased analysis of U-BIOPRED paediatric peripheral blood gene expression identified a sub-phenotype, P1, with an inhibited steroid response. P1 is associated with low expression of a splice variant of GR with a long 3’ UTR.
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