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Sökning: WFRF:(Corsico Angelo)

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1.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 137:6, s. 1788-1795
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. Objective: We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Methods: Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Results: Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Conclusion: Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years.
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2.
  • Fuertes, Elaine, et al. (författare)
  • Residential air pollution does not modify the positive association between physical activity and lung function in current smokers in the ECRHS study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 120, s. 364-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Very few studies have examined whether a long-term beneficial effect of physical activity on lung function can be influenced by living in polluted urban areas.OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether annual average residential concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10) modify the effect of physical activity on lung function among never- (N = 2801) and current (N = 1719) smokers in the multi-center European Community Respiratory Health Survey.METHODS: Associations between repeated assessments (at 27-57 and 39-67 years) of being physically active (physical activity: ≥2 times and ≥1 h per week) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated using adjusted mixed linear regression models. Models were conducted separately for never- and current smokers and stratified by residential long-term NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (≤75th percentile (low/medium) versus >75th percentile (high)).RESULTS: Among current smokers, physical activity and lung function were positively associated regardless of air pollution levels. Among never-smokers, physical activity was associated with lung function in areas with low/medium NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (e.g. mean difference in FVC between active and non-active subjects was 43.0 mL (13.6, 72.5), 49.5 mL (20.1, 78.8) and 49.7 mL (18.6, 80.7), respectively), but these associations were attenuated in high air pollution areas. Only the interaction term of physical activity and PM10 mass for FEV1 among never-smokers was significant (p-value = 0.03).CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity has beneficial effects on adult lung function in current smokers, irrespective of residential air pollution levels in Western Europe. Trends among never-smokers living in high air pollution areas are less clear.
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3.
  • Krantz, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-sectional study on exhaled nitric oxide in relation to upper airway inflammatory disorders with regard to asthma and perennial sensitisation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a well-known marker of type-2 inflammation. FeNO is elevated in asthma and allergic rhinitis, with IgE sensitisation as a major determinant.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to see if there was an independent association between upper airway inflammatory disorders (UAID) and FeNO, after adjustment for asthma and sensitisation, in a multi-centre population-based study.METHODS: A total of 741 subjects with current asthma and 4,155 non-asthmatic subjects participating in the second follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS III) underwent FeNO measurements. Sensitisation status was based on measurement of IgE against airborne allergens; information on asthma, UAID and medication was collected through interview-led questionnaires. Independent associations between UAID and FeNO was assessed in adjusted multivariate regression models and test for interaction with perennial sensitisation and asthma on the relation between UAID and FeNO were made.RESULTS: UAID were associated with higher FeNO after adjusting for perennial sensitisation, asthma and other confounders: with 4.4 (0.9-7.9) % higher FeNO in relation to current rhinitis and 4.8 (0.7-9.2)% higher FeNO in relation to rhinoconjunctivitis. A significant interaction with perennial sensitisation was found in the relationship between current rhinitis and FeNO (p=0.03) and between rhinoconjunctivitis and FeNO (p=0.03). After stratification by asthma and perennial sensitisation, the association between current rhinitis and FeNO remained in non-asthmatic subjects with perennial sensitisation, with 12.1 (0.2-25.5) % higher FeNO in subjects with current rhinitis than in those without.CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Current rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis was associated with higher FeNO, with an interaction with perennial sensitisation. This further highlights the concept of united airway disease, with correlations between symptoms and inflammation in the upper and lower airways and that sensitisation needs to be accounted for in the relation between FeNO and rhinitis.
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4.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
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5.
  • Krantz, C., et al. (författare)
  • Cross-sectional study on exhaled nitric oxide in relation to upper airway inflammatory disorders with regard to asthma and perennial sensitization
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a well-known marker of type-2 inflammation. FeNO is elevated in asthma and allergic rhinitis, with IgE sensitization as a major determinant. Objective We aimed to see whether there was an independent association between upper airway inflammatory disorders (UAID) and FeNO, after adjustment for asthma and sensitization, in a multi-centre population-based study. Methods A total of 741 subjects with current asthma and 4155 non-asthmatic subjects participating in the second follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS III) underwent FeNO measurements. Sensitization status was based on measurement of IgE against airborne allergens; information on asthma, UAID and medication was collected through interview-led questionnaires. Independent associations between UAID and FeNO were assessed in adjusted multivariate regression models and test for interaction with perennial sensitization and asthma on the relation between UAID and FeNO were made. Results UAID were associated with higher FeNO after adjusting for perennial sensitization, asthma and other confounders: with 4.4 (0.9-7.9) % higher FeNO in relation to current rhinitis and 4.8 (0.7-9.2) % higher FeNO in relation to rhinoconjunctivitis. A significant interaction with perennial sensitization was found in the relationship between current rhinitis and FeNO (p = .03) and between rhinoconjunctivitis and FeNO (p = .03). After stratification by asthma and perennial sensitization, the association between current rhinitis and FeNO remained in non-asthmatic subjects with perennial sensitization, with 12.1 (0.2-25.5) % higher FeNO in subjects with current rhinitis than in those without. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance Current rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis was associated with higher FeNO, with an interaction with perennial sensitization. This further highlights the concept of united airway disease, with correlations between symptoms and inflammation in the upper and lower airways and that sensitization needs to be accounted for in the relation between FeNO and rhinitis.
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6.
  • Lønnebotn, Marianne, et al. (författare)
  • Body silhouettes as a tool to reflect obesity in the past
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Life course data on obesity may enrich the quality of epidemiologic studies analysing health consequences of obesity. However, achieving such data may require substantial resources. We investigated the use of body silhouettes in adults as a tool to reflect obesity in the past. We used large population-based samples to analyse to what extent self-reported body silhouettes correlated with the previously measured (9-23 years) body mass index (BMI) from both measured (European Community Respiratory Health Survey, N = 3 041) and selfreported (Respiratory Health In Northern Europe study, N = 3 410) height and weight. We calculated Spearman correlation between BMI and body silhouettes and ROC-curve analyses for identifying obesity (BMI >= 30) at ages 30 and 45 years. Spearman correlations between measured BMI age 30 (+/- 2y) or 45 (+/- 2y) and body silhouettes in women and men were between 0.62-0.66 and correlations for self-reported BMI were between 0.58-0.70. The area under the curve for identification of obesity at age 30 using body silhouettes vs previously measured BMI at age 30 (+/- 2y) was 0.92 (95% CI 0.87, 0.97) and 0.85 (95% CI 0.75, 0.95) in women and men, respectively; for previously self-reported BMI, 0.92 (95% CI 0.88, 0.95) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.85, 0.96). Our study suggests that body silhouettes are a useful epidemiological tool, enabling retrospective differentiation of obesity and non-obesity in adult women and men.
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7.
  • Marcon, A., et al. (författare)
  • The coexistence of asthma and COPD: risk factors, clinical history and lung function trajectories
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 58:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with concomitant features of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a heavy disease burden. Using data collected prospectively in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, we compared the risk factors, clinical history and lung function trajectories from early adulthood to late sixties of middle-aged subjects with asthma+COPD (n=179), past (n=263) or current (n=808) asthma alone, COPD alone (n=111) or none of these (n=3477). Interview data and pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained during three clinical examinations in 1991-1993, 1999-2002 and 2010-2013. Disease status was classified in 2010-2013, when the subjects were aged 40-68 years, according to the presence of fixed airflow obstruction (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal), a lifetime history of asthma and cumulative exposure to tobacco or occupational inhalants. Previous lung function trajectories, clinical characteristics and risk factors of these phenotypes were estimated. Subjects with asthma+COPD reported maternal smoking (28.2%) and respiratory infections in childhood (19.1%) more frequently than subjects with COPD alone (20.9% and 14.0%, respectively). Subjects with asthma+COPD had an impairment of lung function at age 20 years that tracked over adulthood, and more than half of them had asthma onset in childhood. Subjects with COPD alone had the highest lifelong exposure to tobacco smoking and occupational inhalants, and they showed accelerated lung function decline during adult life. The coexistence between asthma and COPD seems to have its origins earlier in life compared to COPD alone. These findings suggest that prevention of this severe condition, which is typical at older ages, should start in childhood.
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8.
  • Nerpin, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • Bronchodilator response and lung function decline : Associations with exhaled nitric oxide with regard to sex and smoking status
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: World Allergy Organization Journal. - : Elsevier. - 1731-3317 .- 1939-4551. ; 14:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a marker of type-2 inflammation used both to support diagnosis of asthma and follow up asthma patients. The associations of FeNO with lung function decline and bronchodilator (BD) response have been studied only scarcely in large populations.Objectives: To study the association between FeNO and a) retrospective lung function decline over 20 years, and b) lung function response to BD among asthmatic subjects compared with non-asthmatic subjects and with regards to current smoking and sex.Methods: Longitudinal analyses of previous lung function decline and FeNO level at follow-up and cross-sectional analyses of BD response and FeNO levels in 4257 participants (651 asthmatics) from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.Results: Among asthmatic subjects, higher percentage declines of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were associated with higher FeNO levels (p = 0.001 for both) at follow-up. These correlations were found mainly among non-smoking individuals (p = 0.001) and females (p = 0.001) in stratified analyses.Percentage increase in FEV1 after BD was positively associated with FeNO levels in non-asthmatic subjects. Further, after stratified for sex and smoking separately, a positive association was seen between FEV1 and FeNO levels in non-smokers and women, regardless of asthma status.Conclusions: We found a relationship between elevated FeNO and larger FEV1 decline over 20 years among subjects with asthma who were non-smokers or women. The association between elevated FeNO levels and larger BD response was found in both non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects, mainly in women and non-smoking subjects.
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9.
  • Nerpin, E., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in healthy men and women from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 49:7, s. 969-979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a marker for type 2 inflammation used in diagnostics and management of asthma. In order to use FENO as a reliable biomarker, it is important to investigate factors that influence FENO in healthy individuals. Men have higher levels of FENO than women, but it is unclear whether determinants of FENO differ by sex. Objective To identify determinants of FENO in men and women without lung diseases. Method Fractional exhaled nitric oxide was validly measured in 3881 healthy subjects that had answered the main questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III without airways or lung disease. Results Exhaled NO levels were 21.3% higher in men compared with women P < 0.001. Being in the upper age quartile (60.3-67.6 years), men had 19.2 ppb (95% CI: 18.3, 20.2) higher FENO than subjects in the lowest age quartile (39.7-48.3 years) P = 0.02. Women in the two highest age quartiles (54.6-60.2 and 60.3-67.6 years) had 15.4 ppb (14.7, 16.2), P = 0.03 and 16.4 ppb (15.6, 17.1), P = FENO, compared with the lowest age quartile. Height was related to 8% higher FENO level in men (P < 0.001) and 5% higher FENO levels in women (P = 0.008). Men who smoked had 37% lower FENO levels and women had 30% lower levels compared with never-smokers (P < 0.001 for both). Men and women sensitized to both grass and perennial allergens had higher FENO levels compared with non-sensitized subjects 26% and 29%, P Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were higher in men than women. Similar effects of current smoking, height, and IgE sensitization were found in both sexes. FENO started increasing at lower age in women than in men, suggesting that interpretation of FENO levels in adults aged over 50 years should take into account age and sex.
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10.
  • Olivieri, M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of smoking bans on passive smoking exposure at work and at home. The European Community respiratory health survey
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 29:4, s. 670-679
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This longitudinal study investigated whether smoking bans influence passive smoking at work and/or at home in the same subjects. Passive smoking at work and/or at home was investigated in random population samples (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) in 1990-1995, with follow-up interviews in 1998-2003 and 2010-2014. National smoking bans were classified as partial (restricted to public workplaces) or global (extended to private workplaces). Multivariable analysis was accomplished by three-level logistic regression models, where level-1, level-2, and level-3 units were, respectively, questionnaire responses, subjects, and centers. Passive smoking at work was reported by 31.9% in 1990-1995, 17.5% in 1998-2003, and 2.5% in 2010-2014. Concurrently, passive smoking at home decreased from 28.9% to 18.2% and 8.8%. When controlling for sex, age, education, smoking status, and ECHRS wave, the odds of passive smoking at work was markedly reduced after global smoking bans (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.81), particularly among non-smokers, while the protective effect of global smoking bans on passive smoking at home was only detected in non-smokers. Smoking bans both in public and private workplaces were effective in reducing passive smoking at work in Europe. However, given the inefficacy of smoking bans in current smokers' dwellings, better strategies are needed to avoid smoking indoors.
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