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Sökning: WFRF:(Cotch Mary Frances)

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  • Haycock, Philip C., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases A Mendelian Randomization Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - : American Medical Association. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 3:5, s. 636-651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases. DATA SOURCES: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015. STUDY SELECTION: GWAS of noncommunicable diseases that assayed germline genetic variation and did not select cohort or control participants on the basis of preexisting diseases. Of 163 GWAS of noncommunicable diseases identified, summary data from 103 were available. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Summary association statistics for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with telomere length in the general population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease per standard deviation (SD) higher telomere length due to germline genetic variation. RESULTS: Summary data were available for 35 cancers and 48 non-neoplastic diseases, corresponding to 420 081 cases (median cases, 2526 per disease) and 1 093 105 controls (median, 6789 per disease). Increased telomere length due to germline genetic variation was generally associated with increased risk for site-specific cancers. The strongest associations (ORs [ 95% CIs] per 1-SD change in genetically increased telomere length) were observed for glioma, 5.27 (3.15-8.81); serous low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer, 4.35 (2.39-7.94); lung adenocarcinoma, 3.19 (2.40-4.22); neuroblastoma, 2.98 (1.92-4.62); bladder cancer, 2.19 (1.32-3.66); melanoma, 1.87 (1.55-2.26); testicular cancer, 1.76 (1.02-3.04); kidney cancer, 1.55 (1.08-2.23); and endometrial cancer, 1.31 (1.07-1.61). Associations were stronger for rarer cancers and at tissue sites with lower rates of stem cell division. There was generally little evidence of association between genetically increased telomere length and risk of psychiatric, autoimmune, inflammatory, diabetic, and other non-neoplastic diseases, except for coronary heart disease (OR, 0.78 [ 95% CI, 0.67-0.90]), abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 0.63 [ 95% CI, 0.49-0.81]), celiac disease (OR, 0.42 [ 95% CI, 0.28-0.61]) and interstitial lung disease (OR, 0.09 [ 95% CI, 0.05-0.15]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: It is likely that longer telomeres increase risk for several cancers but reduce risk for some non-neoplastic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.
  • Qiu, Chengxuan, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebral microbleeds and age-related macular degeneration : the AGES-Reykjavik Study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 33:12, s. 2935-2937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We test the hypothesis that cerebral microbleeds (CMB) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), both linked to amyloid-beta deposition, are correlated. This study includes 4205 participants (mean age 76.2; 57.8% women) in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)Reykjavik Study (2002-2006). CMB were assessed from magnetic resonance images, and AMD was assessed using digital retinal images. Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic models controlling for major confounders. Evidence of CMB was detected in 476 persons (272 with strict lobar CMB and 204 with nonlobar CMB). AMD was detected in 1098 persons (869 with early AMD, 140 with exudative AMD, and 89 with pure geographic atrophy). Early and exudative AMD were not associated with CMB. The adjusted odds ratio of pure geographic atrophy was 1.62 (95% confidence interval 0.93-2.82, p = 0.089) for having any CMB, 1.43 (0.66-3.06, p = 0.363) for strict lobar CMB, and 1.85 (0.89-3.87, p = 0.100) for nonlobar CMB. This study provides no evidence that amyloid deposits in the brain and AMD are correlated. However, the suggestive association of geographic atrophy with CMB warrants further investigation.
  • Qiu, Chengxuan, et al. (författare)
  • Differential associations between retinal signs and CMBs by location : The AGES-Reykjavik Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 90:2, s. e142-e148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinal microvascular signs are differentially associated with lobar and deep cerebral microbleeds (CMBs).MethodsCMBs in lobar regions indicate cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). -Amyloid deposits are implicated in both CAA and AMD. Deep CMBs are associated with hypertension, a major risk factor for retinal microvascular damage. This population-based cohort study included 2,502 participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study who undertook binocular digital retinal photographs at baseline (2002-2006) to assess retinal microvascular signs and AMD and brain MRI scan at both baseline and follow-up (2007-2011) to assess CMBs. We assessed retinal microvascular lesion burden by counting the 3 retinal microvascular signs (focal arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous nicking, and retinopathy) concurrently present in the participant. We used multiple logistic models to examine the association of baseline retinal pathology to incident CMBs detected at follow-up.ResultsDuring an average 5.2 years of follow-up, 461 people (18.3%) developed new CMBs, including 293 in exclusively lobar regions and 168 in deep regions. Pure geographic atrophy was significantly associated with strictly lobar CMBs (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-6.65) but not with deep CMBs. Concurrently having 2 retinal microvascular signs was associated with a 3-fold (95% CI 1.73-5.20) increased likelihood for deep CMBs but not exclusively lobar CMBs.ConclusionsRetinal microvascular signs and pure geographic atrophy may be associated with deep and exclusively lobar CMBs, respectively, in older people. These results have implications for further research to define the role of small vessel disease in cognitive impairment.
  • Vidarsdottir, Halldora, et al. (författare)
  • Spousal loss and cognitive function in later life : a 25-year follow-up in the AGES-Reykjavik study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Cary, USA : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 179:6, s. 674-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between loss of a life partner and the development of dementia and decline in cognitive function in later life. We used an Icelandic cohort of 4,370 participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study who were living as married in 1978 (born in 1907-1935) and were either still married (unexposed cohort) or widowed (exposed cohort) at follow-up (in 2002-2006). We ascertained history of marital status and spouse's death by record linkage to the Registry of the Total Population, Statistics Iceland. The outcome measures were as follows: 1) dementia and mild cognitive impairment; and 2) memory, speed of processing, and executive function. During the observation period, 3,007 individuals remained married and 1,363 lost a spouse through death. We did not find any significant associations between loss of a spouse and our outcome variables, except that widowed women had poorer executive function (mean = -0.08) during the first 2 years after their husbands' deaths compared with still-married women (mean = 0.09). Our findings do not support the notion that the risk of dementia is increased following the loss of a spouse, yet women demonstrate a seemingly temporary decline in executive function following the death of a partner.
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