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Sökning: WFRF:(Courtois A)

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1.
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2.
  • Abel, I, et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET results with the ITER-like wall
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 53:10, s. 104002-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Following the completion in May 2011 of the shutdown for the installation of the beryllium wall and the tungsten divertor, the first set of JET campaigns have addressed the investigation of the retention properties and the development of operational scenarios with the new plasma-facing materials. The large reduction in the carbon content (more than a factor ten) led to a much lower Z(eff) (1.2-1.4) during L- and H-mode plasmas, and radiation during the burn-through phase of the plasma initiation with the consequence that breakdown failures are almost absent. Gas balance experiments have shown that the fuel retention rate with the new wall is substantially reduced with respect to the C wall. The re-establishment of the baseline H-mode and hybrid scenarios compatible with the new wall has required an optimization of the control of metallic impurity sources and heat loads. Stable type-I ELMy H-mode regimes with H-98,H-y2 close to 1 and beta(N) similar to 1.6 have been achieved using gas injection. ELM frequency is a key factor for the control of the metallic impurity accumulation. Pedestal temperatures tend to be lower with the new wall, leading to reduced confinement, but nitrogen seeding restores high pedestal temperatures and confinement. Compared with the carbon wall, major disruptions with the new wall show a lower radiated power and a slower current quench. The higher heat loads on Be wall plasma-facing components due to lower radiation made the routine use of massive gas injection for disruption mitigation essential.
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3.
  • Romanelli, F, et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET results
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515. ; 51:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the last IAEA Conference JET has been in operation for one year with a programmatic focus on the qualification of ITER operating scenarios, the consolidation of ITER design choices and preparation for plasma operation with the ITER-like wall presently being installed in JET. Good progress has been achieved, including stationary ELMy H-mode operation at 4.5 MA. The high confinement hybrid scenario has been extended to high triangularity, lower ρ*and to pulse lengths comparable to the resistive time. The steady-state scenario has also been extended to lower ρ*and ν*and optimized to simultaneously achieve, under stationary conditions, ITER-like values of all other relevant normalized parameters. A dedicated helium campaign has allowed key aspects of plasma control and H-mode operation for the ITER non-activated phase to be evaluated. Effective sawtooth control by fast ions has been demonstrated with3He minority ICRH, a scenario with negligible minority current drive. Edge localized mode (ELM) control studies using external n = 1 and n = 2 perturbation fields have found a resonance effect in ELM frequency for specific q95values. Complete ELM suppression has, however, not been observed, even with an edge Chirikov parameter larger than 1. Pellet ELM pacing has been demonstrated and the minimum pellet size needed to trigger an ELM has been estimated. For both natural and mitigated ELMs a broadening of the divertor ELM-wetted area with increasing ELM size has been found. In disruption studies with massive gas injection up to 50% of the thermal energy could be radiated before, and 20% during, the thermal quench. Halo currents could be reduced by 60% and, using argon/deuterium and neon/deuterium gas mixtures, runaway electron generation could be avoided. Most objectives of the ITER-like ICRH antenna have been demonstrated; matching with closely packed straps, ELM resilience, scattering matrix arc detection and operation at high power density (6.2 MW m-2) and antenna strap voltages (42 kV). Coupling measurements are in very good agreement with TOPICA modelling. © 2011 IAEA, Vienna.
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4.
  • Bécoulet, A., et al. (författare)
  • Science and technology research and development in support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515. ; 53:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented.
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5.
  • Jones, Gregory T., et al. (författare)
  • Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Identifies Four New Disease-Specific Risk Loci
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Circulation Research. - 0009-7330 .- 1524-4571. ; 120:2, s. 341-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Together, 6 previously identified risk loci only explain a small proportion of the heritability of AAA. Objective: To identify additional AAA risk loci using data from all available genome-wide association studies. Methods and Results: Through a meta-analysis of 6 genome-wide association study data sets and a validation study totaling 10 204 cases and 107 766 controls, we identified 4 new AAA risk loci: 1q32.3 (SMYD2), 13q12.11 (LINC00540), 20q13.12 (near PCIF1/MMP9/ZNF335), and 21q22.2 (ERG). In various database searches, we observed no new associations between the lead AAA single nucleotide polymorphisms and coronary artery disease, blood pressure, lipids, or diabetes mellitus. Network analyses identified ERG, IL6R, and LDLR as modifiers of MMP9, with a direct interaction between ERG and MMP9. Conclusions: The 4 new risk loci for AAA seem to be specific for AAA compared with other cardiovascular diseases and related traits suggesting that traditional cardiovascular risk factor management may only have limited value in preventing the progression of aneurysmal disease.
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6.
  • Barnett, R., et al. (författare)
  • Euclid preparation V. Predicted yield of redshift 7 < z < 9 quasars from the wide survey
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We provide predictions of the yield of 7 < z < 9 quasars from the Euclid wide survey, updating the calculation presented in the Euclid Red Book in several ways. We account for revisions to the Euclid near-infrared filter wavelengths; we adopt steeper rates of decline of the quasar luminosity function (QLF; Phi) with redshift, Phi proportional to 10(k(z-6)), k = 0:72, and a further steeper rate of decline, k = 0:92; we use better models of the contaminating populations (MLT dwarfs and compact early-type galaxies); and we make use of an improved Bayesian selection method, compared to the colour cuts used for the Red Book calculation, allowing the identification of fainter quasars, down to J(AB) similar to 23. Quasars at z > 8 may be selected from Euclid OYJH photometry alone, but selection over the redshift interval 7 < z < 8 is greatly improved by the addition of z-band data from, e.g., Pan-STARRS and LSST. We calculate predicted quasar yields for the assumed values of the rate of decline of the QLF beyond z = 6. If the decline of the QLF accelerates beyond z = 6, with k = 0.92, Euclid should nevertheless find over 100 quasars with 7.0 < z < 7.5, and similar to 25 quasars beyond the current record of z = 7.5, including similar to 8 beyond z = 8.0. The first Euclid quasars at z > 7.5 should be found in the DR1 data release, expected in 2024. It will be possible to determine the bright-end slope of the QLF, 7 < z < 8, M-1450 < 25, using 8m class telescopes to confirm candidates, but follow-up with JWST or E-ELT will be required to measure the faint-end slope. Contamination of the candidate lists is predicted to be modest even at J(AB) similar to 23. The precision with which k can be determined over 7 < z < 8 depends on the value of k, but assuming k = 0.72 it can be measured to a 1 sigma uncertainty of 0.07.
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7.
  • O'Hanlon, Simon J., et al. (författare)
  • Recent Asian origin of chytrid fungi causing global amphibian declines
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 360:6389, s. 621-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Globalized infectious diseases are causing species declines worldwide, but their source often remains elusive. We used whole-genome sequencing to solve the spatiotemporal origins of themost devastating panzootic to date, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a proximate driver of global amphibian declines. We traced the source of B. dendrobatidis to the Korean peninsula, where one lineage, BdASIA-1, exhibits the genetic hallmarks of an ancestral population that seeded the panzootic. We date the emergence of this pathogen to the early 20th century, coinciding with the global expansion of commercial trade in amphibians, and we show that intercontinental transmission is ongoing. Our findings point to East Asia as a geographic hotspot for B. dendrobatidis biodiversity and the original source of these lineages that now parasitize amphibians worldwide.
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8.
  • Jerusalem, G, et al. (författare)
  • Continuous vs intermittent extended adjuvant letrozole for breast cancer: Final results of randomized phase 3 SOLE (Study of Letrozole Extension) and SOLE Estrogen Substudy.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - 0923-7534. ; 32:10, s. 1256-1266
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Late recurrences in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers remain an important challenge. Avoidance or delayed development of resistance represents the main objective in extended endocrine therapy. In animal models, resistance was reversed with restoration of circulating estrogen level during interruption of letrozole treatment. This phase 3 randomized, open-label Study of Letrozole Extension (SOLE) studied the effect of extended intermittent letrozole treatment in comparison with continuous letrozole. In parallel, the SOLE estrogen sub-study (SOLE-EST) analyzed the level of estrogen during the interruption of treatment.SOLE enrolled 4884 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, lymph node-positive, operable breast cancer between December 2007 and October 2012 and among them, 104 patients were enrolled in SOLE-EST. They must have undergone local treatment and have completed 4-6 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Patients were randomized between continuous letrozole (2.5 mg/day orally for 5 years) and intermittent letrozole treatment (2.5 mg/day during 9 months followed by a 3-month interruption in years 1-4 and then 2.5 mg/day during all year 5).Intention-to-treat population included 4851 women in SOLE (n=2425 in intermittent and n=2426 in continuous letrozole groups) and 103 women in SOLE-EST (n=78 in intermittent and n=25 in continuous letrozole groups). After a median follow-up of 84 months, 7-year disease-free survival was 81.4% in intermittent group and 81.5% in continuous group (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95%CI: 0.91-1.17). Reported adverse events were similar in both groups. Circulating estrogen recovery was demonstrated within 6 weeks after the stop of letrozole treatment.Extended adjuvant endocrine therapy by intermittent administration of letrozole did not improve disease-free survival compared to continuous use despite the recovery of circulating estrogen level. The similar disease-free survival coupled with previously reported quality-of-life advantages suggest intermittent extended treatment is a valid option for patients who require or prefer a treatment interruption.
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9.
  • Pegourie, B., et al. (författare)
  • Deuterium inventory in Tore Supra : Coupled carbon-deuterium balance
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials. - 0022-3115 .- 1873-4820. ; 438:Suppl., s. S120-S125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents an analysis of the carbon-deuterium circulation and the resulting balance in Tore Supra over the period 2002-2007. Carbon balance combines the estimation of carbon gross erosion from spectroscopy, net erosion and deposition using confocal microscopy, lock-in thermography and SEM, and a measure of the amount of deposits collected in the vacuum chamber. Fuel retention is determined from post-mortem (PM) analyses and gas balance (GB) measurements. Special attention was paid to the deuterium outgassed during the nights and weekends of the experimental campaign (vessel under vacuum, Plasma Facing Components at 120 degrees C) and during vents (vessel at atmospheric pressure, PFCs at room temperature). It is shown that this outgassing is the main process reconciling the PM and GB estimations of fuel retention, closing the coupled carbon-deuterium balance. In particular, it explains why the deuterium concentration in deposits decreases with increasing depth.
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10.
  • Anand, Kanwlajeet J. S., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of continuous pain in newborns admitted to NICUs in 18 European countries
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 106:8, s. 1248-1259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Continuous pain occurs routinely, even after invasive procedures, or inflammation and surgery, but clinical practices associated with assessments of continuous pain remain unknown.Methods: A prospective cohort study in 243 Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) from 18 European countries recorded frequency of pain assessments, use of mechanical ventilation, sedation, analgesia, or neuromuscular blockade for each neonate upto 28 days after NICU admission.Results: Only 2113/6648 (31·8%) of neonates received assessments of continuous pain, occurring variably among tracheal ventilation (TrV, 46·0%), noninvasive ventilation (NiV, 35·0%), and no ventilation (NoV, 20·1%) groups (p<0·001). Daily assessments for continuous pain occurred in only 10·4% of all neonates (TrV: 14·0%, NiV: 10·7%, NoV: 7·6%; p<0·001). More frequent assessments of continuous pain occurred in NICUs with pain guidelines, nursing champions, and surgical admissions prompted (all p<0·01), and for newborns <32 weeks gestational age, those requiring ventilation, or opioids, sedatives-hypnotics, general anesthetics (O-SH-GA) (all p<0·001), or surgery (p=0·028). Use of O-SH-GA drugs increased the odds for pain assessment in the TrV (OR:1·60, p<0·001) and NiV groups (OR:1·40, p<0·001).Conclusion: Assessments of continuous pain occurred in less than one-third of NICU admissions, and daily in only 10% of neonates. NICU clinical practices should consider including routine assessments of continuous pain in newborns.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 22
  • [1]23Nästa

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