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Sökning: WFRF:(Cremonesi Marta)

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  • Pacilio, Massimiliano, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of SPECT corrections on 3D-dosimetry for liver transarterial radioembolization using the patient relative calibration methodology
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Medical Physics. - : American Association of Physicists in Medicine. - 0094-2405. ; 43:7, s. 4053-4064
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Many centers aim to plan liver transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with dosimetry, even without CT-based attenuation correction (AC), or with unoptimized scatter correction (SC) methods. This work investigates the impact of presence vs absence of such corrections, and limited spatial resolution, on 3D dosimetry for TARE. Methods: Three voxelized phantoms were derived from CT images of real patients with different body sizes. Simulations of 99mTc-SPECT projections were performed with the SIMIND code, assuming three activity distributions in the liver: uniform, inside a "liver's segment," or distributing multiple uptaking nodules ("nonuniform liver"), with a tumoral liver/healthy parenchyma ratio of 5:1. Projection data were reconstructed by a commercial workstation, with OSEM protocol not specifically optimized for dosimetry (spatial resolution of 12.6 mm), with/without SC (optimized, or with parameters predefined by the manufacturer; dual energy window), and with/without AC. Activity in voxels was calculated by a relative calibration, assuming identical microspheres and 99mTc-SPECT counts spatial distribution. 3D dose distributions were calculated by convolution with 90Y voxel S-values, assuming permanent trapping of microspheres. Cumulative dose-volume histograms in lesions and healthy parenchyma from different reconstructions were compared with those obtained from the reference biodistribution (the "gold standard," GS), assessing differences for D95%, D70%, and D50% (i.e., minimum value of the absorbed dose to a percentage of the irradiated volume). γ tool analysis with tolerance of 3%/13 mm was used to evaluate the agreement between GS and simulated cases. The influence of deep-breathing was studied, blurring the reference biodistributions with a 3D anisotropic gaussian kernel, and performing the simulations once again. Results: Differences of the dosimetric indicators were noticeable in some cases, always negative for lesions and distributed around zero for parenchyma. Application of AC and SC reduced systematically the differences for lesions by 5%-14% for a liver segment, and by 7%-12% for a nonuniform liver. For parenchyma, the data trend was less clear, but the overall range of variability passed from -10%/40% for a liver segment, and -10%/20% for a nonuniform liver, to -13%/6% in both cases. Applying AC, SC with preset parameters gave similar results to optimized SC, as confirmed by γ tool analysis. Moreover, γ analysis confirmed that solely AC and SC are not sufficient to obtain accurate 3D dose distribution. With breathing, the accuracy worsened severely for all dosimetric indicators, above all for lesions: with AC and optimized SC, -38%/-13% in liver's segment, -61%/-40% in the nonuniform liver. For parenchyma, D50% resulted always less sensitive to breathing and sub-optimal correction methods (difference overall range: -7%/13%). Conclusions: Reconstruction protocol optimization, AC, SC, PVE and respiratory motion corrections should be implemented to obtain the best possible dosimetric accuracy. On the other side, thanks to the relative calibration, D50% inaccuracy for the healthy parenchyma from absence of AC was less than expected, while the optimization of SC was scarcely influent. The relative calibration therefore allows to perform TARE planning, basing on D50% for the healthy parenchyma, even without AC or with suboptimal corrections, rather than rely on nondosimetric methods.
  • Ambrosini, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Consensus on molecular imaging and theranostics in neuroendocrine neoplasms
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - 0959-8049 .- 1879-0852. ; 146, s. 56-73
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nuclear medicine plays an increasingly important role in the management neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). Somatostatin analogue (SSA)-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) have been used in clinical trials and approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Focus 3 performed a multidisciplinary Delphi process to deliver a balanced perspective on molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy in well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). NETs form in cells that interact with the nervous system or in glands that produce hormones. These cells, called neuroendocrine cells, can be found throughout the body, but NETs are most often found in the abdomen, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. These tumours may also be found in the lungs, pancreas and adrenal glands. In addition to being rare, NETs are also complex and may be difficult to diagnose. Most NETs are non-functioning; however, a minority present with symptoms related to hypersecretion of bioactive compounds. NETs often do not cause symptoms early in the disease process. When diagnosed, substantial number of patients are already found to have metastatic disease. Several societies' guidelines address Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) management; however, many issues are still debated, due to both the difficulty in acquiring strong clinical evidence in a rare and heterogeneous disease and the different availability of diagnostic and therapeutic options across countries. EANM Focus 3 reached consensus on employing 68gallium-labelled somatostatin analogue ([68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA)-based PET/CT with diagnostic CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for unknown primary NET detection, metastatic NET, NET staging/restaging, suspected extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and suspected paraganglioma. Consensus was reached on employing 18fluorine-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET/CT in neuroendocrine carcinoma, G3 NET and in G1-2 NET with mismatched lesions (CT-positive/[68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA-negative). Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) was recommended for second line treatment for gastrointestinal NET with [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA uptake in all lesions, in G1/G2 NET at disease progression, and in a subset of G3 NET provided all lesions are positive at [18F]FDG and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA. PRRT rechallenge may be used for in patients with stable disease for at least 1 year after therapy completion. An international consensus is not only a prelude to a more standardised management across countries but also serves as a guide for the direction to follow when designing new research studies.
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