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Sökning: WFRF:(Crona Joakim)

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1.
  • Muth, Andreas, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic testing and surveillance guidelines in hereditary pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : WILEY. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 285:2, s. 187-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare tumours and at least 30% are part of hereditary syndromes. Approximately 20% of hereditary PPGL are caused by pathogenic germ line variants in genes of the succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHx), TMEM127 or MAX. Herein we present guidelines regarding genetic testing of family members and their surveillance based on a thorough literature review. All cases of PPGL are recommended genetic testing for germ line variants regardless of patient and family characteristics. At minimum, FH, NF1, RET, SDHB, SDHD and VHL should be tested. In addition, testing of MEN1, SDHA, SDHAF2, SDHC, TMEM127 and MAX is recommended. Healthy first-degree relatives (and second-degree relatives in the case of SDHD and SDHAF2 which are maternally imprinted) should be offered carrier testing. Carriers of pathogenic variants should be offered surveillance with annual biochemical measurements of methoxy-catecholamines and bi-annual rapid whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examination. Surveillance should start 5 years before the earliest age of onset in the family and thus only children eligible for surveillance should be offered pre-symptomatic genetic testing. The surveillance of children younger than 15 years needs to be individually designed. Our guidelines will provide a framework for patient management with the possibility to follow outcome via national registries and/or follow-up studies. Together with improved insights into the disease, this may enable optimisation of the surveillance scheme in order to minimise both anxiety and medical complications while ensuring early disease detection.
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2.
  • Akerström, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive Re-Sequencing of Adrenal Aldosterone Producing Lesions Reveal Three Somatic Mutations near the KCNJ5 Potassium Channel Selectivity Filter.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 7:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aldosterone producing lesions are a common cause of hypertension, but genetic alterations for tumorigenesis have been unclear. Recently, either of two recurrent somatic missense mutations (G151R or L168R) was found in the potassium channel KCNJ5 gene in aldosterone producing adenomas. These mutations alter the channel selectivity filter and result in Na(+) conductance and cell depolarization, stimulating aldosterone production and cell proliferation. Because a similar mutation occurs in a Mendelian form of primary aldosteronism, these mutations appear to be sufficient for cell proliferation and aldosterone production. The prevalence and spectrum of KCNJ5 mutations in different entities of adrenocortical lesions remain to be defined.
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3.
  • Crona, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Temozolomide in Patients with Metastatic Bronchial Carcinoids
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 98:2, s. 151-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Metastatic bronchial carcinoids are rare neoplasms, where efforts of medical treatment so far have been disappointing. A previous study from our center indicated that temozolomide might be of value. Materials and Methods: All patients with progressive metastatic bronchial carcinoid treated with tennozolomide as monotherapy at our center between 2004 and 2010 (n = 31) were included in this retrospective study. 14 tumors were classified as typical and 15 as atypical carcinoids, whereas 2 tumors could not be classified. Temozolomide was given on 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks. Toxicity was evaluable in 28 of 31 patients, and 22 patients were evaluable by RECIST 1.1. Results: There were no complete responses. A partial response was seen in 3 patients (14%), stable disease in 11(52%) and progressive disease in 7 patients (33%). Median progression-free survival was 5.3 months and median overall survival was 23.2 months from the start of temozolomide. Toxcities grade 3-4 were noted in 4 patients, thrombocytopenia (n =3) and leukopenia (n = 1). Conclusion: Temozolomide as monotherapy shows activity in metastatic bronchial carcinoids. Regimens combining tennozolomide with other agents (e.g. capecitabine and/or bevacizumab, everolimus, radiolabeled somatostatin analogues) should be further studied in these patients. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel
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4.
  • Crona, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Integrative Genetic Characterization and Phenotype Correlations in Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Tumours
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:1, s. e86756-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: About 60% of Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and Paraganglioma (PGL) patients have either germline or somatic mutations in one of the 12 proposed disease causing genes; SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, RET, NF1, TMEM127, MAX and H-RAS. Selective screening for germline mutations is routinely performed in clinical management of these diseases. Testing for somatic alterations is not performed on a regular basis because of limitations in interpreting the results. Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate genetic events and phenotype correlations in a large cohort of PCC and PGL tumours. Methods: A total of 101 tumours from 89 patients with PCC and PGL were re-sequenced for a panel of 10 disease causing genes using automated Sanger sequencing. Selected samples were analysed with Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and/or SNParray. Results: Pathogenic genetic variants were found in tumours from 33 individual patients (37%), 14 (16%) were discovered in constitutional DNA and 16 (18%) were confirmed as somatic. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was observed in 1/1 SDHB, 11/11 VHL and 3/3 NF1-associated tumours. In patients with somatic mutations there were no recurrences in contrast to carriers of germline mutations (P = 0.022). SDHx/VHL/ EPAS1 associated cases had higher norepinephrine output (P = 0.03) and lower epinephrine output (P<0.001) compared to RET/NF1/H-RAS cases. Conclusion: Somatic mutations are frequent events in PCC and PGL tumours. Tumour genotype may be further investigated as prognostic factors in these diseases. Growing evidence suggest that analysis of tumour DNA could have an impact on the management of these patients.
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5.
  • Crona, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • MAX mutations status in Swedish patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumours
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Familial Cancer. - 1389-9600 .- 1573-7292. ; 13:1, s. 121-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and Paraganglioma are rare tumours originating from neuroendocrine cells. Up to 60 % of cases have either germline or somatic mutation in one of eleven described susceptibility loci, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, RET, NF1, TMEM127 and MYC associated factor-X (MAX). Recently, germline mutations in MAX were found to confer susceptibility to PCC and paraganglioma (PGL). A subsequent multicentre study found about 1 % of PCCs and PGLs to have germline or somatic mutations in MAX. However, there has been no study investigating the frequency of MAX mutations in a Scandinavian cohort. We analysed tumour specimens from 63 patients with PCC and PGL treated at Uppsala University hospital, Sweden, for re-sequencing of MAX using automated Sanger sequencing. Our results show that 0 % (0/63) of tumours had mutations in MAX. Allele frequencies of known single nucleotide polymorphisms rs4902359, rs45440292, rs1957948 and rs1957949 corresponded to those available in the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database. We conclude that MAX mutations remain unusual events and targeted genetic screening should be considered after more common genetic events have been excluded.
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6.
  • Crona, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Metastases from Neuroendocrine Tumors to the Breast Are More Common than Previously Thought. A Diagnostic Pitfall?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Surgery. - 0364-2313 .- 1432-2323. ; 37:7, s. 1701-1706
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metastases from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to the breast have been described as a rare phenomenon. Presentation, imaging results, and cytopathologic findings of these tumours may closely mimic those of a mammary carcinoma. This study was a retrospective review of 661 patients with metastatic NETs, of whom 280 were females, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. Patients with pathological breast lesions were identified. Histopathological slides from available NET breast lesions were analyzed for mammary carcinoma and neuroendocrine markers. We have identified 20 female patients with NET metastases to the breast, 11/235 with small intestinal NETs, 8/55 with lung NETs, and 1/6 with thymic NETs. There were no male patients with NET metastatic to the breast. Four patients had their breast lesion initially diagnosed as mammary carcinoma. Retrospectively, these lesions showed negative staining for mammary carcinoma markers. Metastases to the breast from neuroendocrine tumors may be more common than previously thought. Patients with a lesion to the breast and symptoms typical for NET may benefit from additional histopathological investigation, because NET metastases and mammary carcinoma have different immunohistochemical profiles.
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7.
  • Crona, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Next-generation sequencing in the clinical genetic screening of patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Endocrine connections. - 2049-3614. ; 2:2, s. 104-111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Recent findings have shown that up to 60% of pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are caused by germline or somatic mutations in one of the 11 hitherto known susceptibility genes: SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, HIF2A (EPAS1), RET, NF1, TMEM127 and MAX. This list of genes is constantly growing and the 11 genes together consist of 144 exons. A genetic screening test is extensively time consuming and expensive. Hence, we introduce next-generation sequencing (NGS) as a time-efficient and cost-effective alternative.METHODS:Tumour lesions from three patients with apparently sporadic PCC were subjected to whole exome sequencing utilizing Agilent Sureselect target enrichment system and Illumina Hi seq platform. Bioinformatics analysis was performed in-house using commercially available software. Variants in PCC and PGL susceptibility genes were identified.RESULTS:We have identified 16 unique genetic variants in PCC susceptibility loci in three different PCC, spending less than a 30-min hands-on, in-house time. Two patients had one unique variant each that was classified as probably and possibly pathogenic: NF1 Arg304Ter and RET Tyr791Phe. The RET variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.CONCLUSIONS:NGS can serve as a fast and cost-effective method in the clinical genetic screening of PCC. The bioinformatics analysis may be performed without expert skills. We identified process optimization, characterization of unknown variants and determination of additive effects of multiple variants as key issues to be addressed by future studies.
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8.
  • Crona, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Somatic Mutations in H-RAS in Sporadic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Identified by Exome Sequencing
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 98:7, s. E1266-E1271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Up to 60% of pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are associated with either somatic or germline mutations in established PCC and PGL susceptibility loci. Most unexplained cases are characterized by an increased activity of the RAS/RAF/ERK signaling pathway. Mutations in RAS subtypes H, K, and N are common in human cancers; however, previous studies have been inconsistent regarding the mutational status of RAS in PCC and PGL. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify novel disease causing genes in PCC and PGL tumors. Design, setting, and participants: Four benign and sporadic PCC and PGL tumors were subjected to whole exome sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq Platform. Sequences were processed by CLC genomics 4.9 bioinformatics software and the acquired list of genetic variants was filtered against the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer database. Findings were validated in an additional 78 PCC and PGL tumor lesions. Results: Exome sequencing identified 2 cases with somatic mutations in the H-RAS. In total, 6.9% (n = 4/58) of tumors negative for mutations in major PCC and PGL loci had mutations in H-RAS: G13R, Q61K, and Q61R. There were 3 PCC and 1 PGL; all had sporadic presentation with benign tumor characteristics and substantial increases in norepinephrine and/or epinephrine. H-RAS tumors were exclusively found in male patients (P = .007). Conclusions: We identified recurrent somatic H-RAS mutations in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Tumors with H-RAS mutations had activation of the RAS/RAF/ERK signaling pathway and were associated with male PCC patients having benign and sporadic disease characteristics. H-RAS could serve as a prognostic and predictive marker as well as a novel therapeutic target.
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9.
  • Paulsson, Johan O., et al. (författare)
  • Whole‐genome sequencing of synchronous thyroid carcinomas identifies aberrant DNA repair in thyroid cancer dedifferentiation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pathology. - 0022-3417 .- 1096-9896. ; 250:2, s. 183-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetics underlying thyroid cancer dedifferentiation is only partly understood and has not yet been characterised using comprehensive pan‐genomic analyses. We investigated a unique case with synchronous follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC), and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), as well as regional lymph node metastases from the PDTC and ATC from a single patient using whole‐genome sequencing (WGS). The FTC displayed mutations in CALR, RB1, and MSH2, and the PDTC exhibited mutations in TP53, DROSHA, APC, TERT, and additional DNA repair genes – associated with an immense increase in sub‐clonal somatic mutations. All components displayed an overrepresentation of C>T transitions with associated microsatellite instability (MSI) in the PDTC and ATC, with borderline MSI in the FTC. Clonality analyses pinpointed a shared ancestral clone enriched for mutations in TP53‐associated regulation of DNA repair and identified important sub‐clones for each tumour component already present in the corresponding preceding lesion. This genomic characterisation of the natural progression of thyroid cancer reveals several novel genes of interest for future studies. Moreover, the findings support the theory of a stepwise dedifferentiation process and suggest that defects in DNA repair could play an important role in the clonal evolution of thyroid cancer.
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10.
  • Pettersson, Olof Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Tumor growth rate in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor patients undergoing PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Endocrine Connections. - 2049-3614 .- 2049-3614. ; 10:4, s. 422-431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Monitoring of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) undergoing peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177Lu-DOTATATE depends on changes in tumor size, which often occur late. Tumor growth rate (TGR) allows for quantitative assessment of the tumor kinetics expressed as %/month. We explored how TGR changes before and during/after PRRT and evaluated TGR as a biomarker for progression-free survival (PFS).Methods: In PanNET patients undergoing PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE from 2006 to 2018, contrast-enhanced CT or MRI was performed before and during the therapy. Patients with at least one hypervascular liver metastasis were included. TGR was calculated for the period preceding treatment and for two intervals during/after PRRT. Cox regression was used for the survival analysis.Results: Sixty-seven patients (43 men, 24 women), median age 60 years (range 29-77), median Ki-67 10% (range 1-30) were included. TGR before baseline (n = 57) (TGR0) was mean (s.d.) 6.0%/month (s.d. = 8.7). TGR at 4.5 months (n = 56) (TGR4) from baseline was -3.4 (s.d. = 4.2) %/month. TGR at 9.9 months (n = 57) (TGR10) from baseline was -3.0 (s.d. = 2.9) %/month. TGR4 and TGR10 were lower than TGR0 (TGR4 vs TGR0, P < 0.001 and TGR10 vs TGR0, P < 0.001). In the survival analysis, patients with TGR10 ≥ 0.5%/month (vs <0.5%/month) had shorter PFS (median = 16.0 months vs 31.5 months, hazard ratio 2.82; 95% CI 1.05-7.57, P = 0.040).Discussion: TGR in PanNET patients decreases considerably during PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE. TGR may be useful as a biomarker to identify patients with the shortest PFS.
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