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  • Dankiewicz, J., et al. (författare)
  • Hypothermia versus Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 384:24, s. 2283-2294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypothermia or Normothermia after Cardiac Arrest This trial randomly assigned patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33 degrees C or normothermia with treatment of fever. At 6 months, there were no significant between-group differences regarding death or functional outcomes. Background Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. Methods In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33 degrees C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, >= 37.8 degrees C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. Results A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P=0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score >= 4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, .)
  • Dankiewicz, J., et al. (författare)
  • Targeted hypothermia versus targeted Normothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (TTM2): A randomized clinical trial - Rationale and design
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 217, s. 23-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Less than 500 participants have been included in randomized trials comparing hypothermia with regular care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, and many of these trials were small and at a high risk of bias. Consequently, the accrued data on this potentially beneficial intervention resembles that of a drug following small phase II trials. A large confirmatory trial is therefore warranted. Methods: The TTM2-trial is an international, multicenter, parallel group, investigator-initiated, randomized, superiority trial in which a target temperature of 33°C after cardiac arrest will be compared with a strategy to maintain normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C). Participants will be randomized within 3 hours of return of spontaneous circulation with the intervention period lasting 40 hours in both groups. Sedation will be mandatory for all patients throughout the intervention period. The clinical team involved with direct patient care will not be blinded to allocation group due to the inherent difficulty in blinding the intervention. Prognosticators, outcome-assessors, the steering group, the trial coordinating team, and trial statistician will be blinded. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at 180 days after randomization. We estimate a 55% mortality in the control group. To detect an absolute risk reduction of 7.5% with an alpha of 0.05 and 90% power, 1900 participants will be enrolled. The main secondary neurological outcome will be poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 4–6) at 180 days after arrest. Discussion: The TTM2-trial will compare hypothermia to 33°C with normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. © 2019
  • Andersson, P., et al. (författare)
  • Predicting neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with cumulative information; development and internal validation of an artificial neural network algorithm
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Critical Care. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1364-8535. ; 25:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundPrognostication of neurological outcome in patients who remain comatose after cardiac arrest resuscitation is complex. Clinical variables, as well as biomarkers of brain injury, cardiac injury, and systemic inflammation, all yield some prognostic value. We hypothesised that cumulative information obtained during the first three days of intensive care could produce a reliable model for predicting neurological outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) using artificial neural network (ANN) with and without biomarkers.MethodsWe performed a post hoc analysis of 932 patients from the Target Temperature Management trial. We focused on comatose patients at 24, 48, and 72 h post-cardiac arrest and excluded patients who were awake or deceased at these time points. 80% of the patients were allocated for model development (training set) and 20% for internal validation (test set). To investigate the prognostic potential of different levels of biomarkers (clinically available and research-grade), patients' background information, and intensive care observation and treatment, we created three models for each time point: (1) clinical variables, (2) adding clinically accessible biomarkers, e.g., neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and (3) adding research-grade biomarkers, e.g., neurofilament light (NFL). Patient outcome was the dichotomised Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) at six months; a good outcome was defined as CPC 1-2 whilst a poor outcome was defined as CPC 3-5. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was calculated for all test sets.ResultsAUROC remained below 90% when using only clinical variables throughout the first three days in the ICU. Adding clinically accessible biomarkers such as NSE, AUROC increased from 82 to 94% (p<0.01). The prognostic accuracy remained excellent from day 1 to day 3 with an AUROC at approximately 95% when adding research-grade biomarkers. The models which included NSE after 72 h and NFL on any of the three days had a low risk of false-positive predictions while retaining a low number of false-negative predictions.ConclusionsIn this exploratory study, ANNs provided good to excellent prognostic accuracy in predicting neurological outcome in comatose patients post OHCA. The models which included NSE after 72 h and NFL on all days showed promising prognostic performance.
  • Bohm, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Detailed analysis of health-related quality of life after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 135, s. 197-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To describe the detailed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in survivors from the TTM-trial and to investigate potential differences related to sex and age. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study originating from a large prospective international, multicentre trial, including 442 respondents who answered the Short Form-36 item Questionnaire Health Survey version 2® (SF-36v2®) at a structured follow-up 6 months after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Statistical analysis between independent groups were performed with Mann-Whitney U or Chi-square. Age was analysed primarily as a dichotomised variable. Results: Although overall physical and mental health were within the normal range, a substantial proportion of respondents had impaired function at domain-specific levels, particularly in Role-Physical (50%) and Role-Emotional (35%). Females scored significantly lower than males in; Physical Functioning (41.7 vs. 47.9, p < 0.001), Role-Physical (40.4 vs. 44.3, p = 0.02), General Health (47.0 vs. 50.5, p = 0.02), Vitality (47.2 vs. 52.7, p < 0.001), and Role-Emotional (41.5 vs. 46.2, p = 0.009). Those ≤65 years scored significantly better in Physical Functioning (47.9 vs. 44.1 p < 0.001), while those >65 years scored significantly better in Vitality (50.8 vs. 53.7, p = 0.006) and Mental Health (50.3 vs. 52.6, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Many OHCA survivors demonstrated impaired function in HRQoL at a domain level, despite most patients reporting an acceptable general HRQoL. Females reported worse HRQoL than males. Older age was associated with a worse Physical Functioning but better Vitality and Mental Health. Role-Physical and Role-Emotional aspects of health were especially affected, even when effects of age and sex where accounted for.
  • Djärv, Therese, et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life after surviving an out-of-hospital compared to an in-hospital cardiac arrest : a Swedish population-based registry study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 151, s. 77-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundHealth-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been reported for out-hospital (OHCA) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) separately, but potential differences between the two groups are unknown. The aim of this study is therefore to describe and compare HRQoL in patients surviving OHCA and IHCA.MethodsPatients ≥18 years with Cerebral Performance Category 1–3 included in the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation between 2014 and 2017 were included. A telephone interview was performed based on a questionnaire sent 3–6 months post cardiac arrest, including EQ-5D-5L and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Mann–Whitney U test and multiple linear- and ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to describe and compare HRQoL in OHCA and IHCA survivors. Adjustments were made for sex, age and initial rhythm.ResultsIn all, 1369 IHCA and 772 OHCA survivors were included. Most OHCA and IHCA survivors reported no symptoms of with anxiety (88% and 84%) or depression (87% and 85%). IHCA survivors reported significantly more problems in the health domains mobility, self-care, usual activities and pain/discomfort (p < 0.001 for all) and scored lower general health measured by EQ-VAS (median 70 vs. 80 respectively, p < 0.001) compared with the OHCA survivors.ConclusionSurvivors of IHCA reported significantly worse HRQoL compared to survivors of OHCA. Consequently, research data gathered from one of these populations may not be generalizable to the other.
  • Ebner, Florian, et al. (författare)
  • The association of partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide with neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : an explorative International Cardiac Arrest Registry 2.0 study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1757-7241. ; 28:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Exposure to extreme arterial partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) following the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is common and may affect neurological outcome but results of previous studies are conflicting. METHODS: Exploratory study of the International Cardiac Arrest Registry (INTCAR) 2.0 database, including 2162 OHCA patients with ROSC in 22 intensive care units in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to extreme PaO2 or PaCO2 values within 24 h after OHCA is associated with poor neurological outcome at discharge. Our primary analyses investigated the association between extreme PaO2 and PaCO2 values, defined as hyperoxemia (PaO2 > 40 kPa), hypoxemia (PaO2 < 8.0 kPa), hypercapnemia (PaCO2 > 6.7 kPa) and hypocapnemia (PaCO2 < 4.0 kPa) and neurological outcome. The secondary analyses tested the association between the exposure combinations of PaO2 > 40 kPa with PaCO2 < 4.0 kPa and PaO2 8.0-40 kPa with PaCO2 > 6.7 kPa and neurological outcome. To define a cut point for the onset of poor neurological outcome, we tested a model with increasing and decreasing PaO2 levels and decreasing PaCO2 levels. Cerebral Performance Category (CPC), dichotomized to good (CPC 1-2) and poor (CPC 3-5) was used as outcome measure. RESULTS: Of 2135 patients eligible for analysis, 700 were exposed to hyperoxemia or hypoxemia and 1128 to hypercapnemia or hypocapnemia. Our primary analyses did not reveal significant associations between exposure to extreme PaO2 or PaCO2 values and neurological outcome (P = 0.13-0.49). Our secondary analyses showed no significant associations between combinations of PaO2 and PaCO2 and neurological outcome (P = 0.11-0.86). There was no PaO2 or PaCO2 level significantly associated with poor neurological outcome. All analyses were adjusted for relevant co-variates. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to extreme PaO2 or PaCO2 values in the first 24 h after OHCA was common, but not independently associated with neurological outcome at discharge.
  • Elfwén, Ludvig, et al. (författare)
  • Direct or subacute coronary angiography in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (DISCO)-An initial pilot-study of a randomized clinical trial.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 1873-1570 .- 0300-9572. ; 139, s. 253-261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clinical importance of immediate coronary angiography, with potentially subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients without ST-elevation on the ECG is unclear. In this study, we assessed feasibility and safety aspects of performing immediate coronary angiography in a pre-specified pilot phase of the 'DIrect or Subacute Coronary angiography in Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest' (DISCO) randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02309151).Resuscitated bystander witnessed OHCA patients >18 years without ST-elevation on the ECG were randomized to immediate coronary angiography versus standard of care. Event times, procedure related adverse events and safety variables within 7 days were recorded.In total, 79 patients were randomized to immediate angiography (n = 39) or standard of care (n = 40). No major differences in baseline characteristics between the groups were found. There were no differences in the proportion of bleedings and renal failure. Three patients randomized to immediate angiography and six patients randomized to standard care died within 24 h. The median time from EMS arrival to coronary angiography was 135 min in the immediate angiography group. In patients randomized to immediate angiography a culprit lesion was found in 14/38 (36.8%) and PCI was performed in all these patients. In 6/40 (15%) patients randomized to standard of care, coronary angiography was performed before the stipulated 3 days.In this out-of-hospital cardiac arrest population without ST-elevation, randomization to a strategy to perform immediate coronary angiography was feasible although the time window of 120 min from EMS arrival at the scene of the arrest to start of coronary angiography was not achieved. No significant safety issues were reported.
  • Gisela, Lilja, et al. (författare)
  • Return to Work and Participation in Society After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Circulation-Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1941-7705 .- 1941-7713. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors' ability to participate in activities of everyday life and society, including return to work. The specific aim was to evaluate potential effects of cognitive impairment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-seven OHCA survivors included in the TTM trial (Target Temperature Management) and 119 matched control patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction participated in a follow-up 180 days post-event that included assessments of participation, return to work, emotional problems, and cognitive impairment. On the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 Participation Index, OHCA survivors (n=270) reported more restricted participation In everyday life and in society (47% versus 30%; P<0.001) compared with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction controls (n=118). Furthermore, 27% (n=36) of pre-event working OHCA survivors (n=135) compared with 7% (n=3) of pre-event working ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction controls (n=45) were on sick leave (odds ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-16.8; P=0.01). Among the OHCA survivors assumed to return to work (n=135), those with cognitive impairment (n=55) were 3x more likely (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-9.3; P=0.02) to be on sick leave compared with those without cognitive impairment (n=40; 36%, n=20, versus 15%, n=6). For OHCA survivors, the variables that were found most predictive for a lower participation were depression, restricted mobility, memory impairment, novel problem-solving difficulties, fatigue, and slower processing speed. CONCLUSIONS: OHCA survivors reported a more restricted societal participation 6 months post-arrest, and their return to work was lower compared with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction controls. Cognitive impairment was significantly associated with lower participation, together with the closely related symptoms of fatigue, depression, and restricted mobility. These predictive variables may be used during follow-up to identify OHCA survivors at risk of a less successful recovery that may benefit from further support and rehabilitation.
  • Grand, J., et al. (författare)
  • Serum tau fragments as predictors of death or poor neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Biomarkers. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1354-750X. ; 24:6, s. 584-591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Anoxic brain injury is the primary cause of death after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and prognostication is challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two fragments of tau as serum biomarkers for neurological outcome. Methods: Single-center sub-study of 171 patients included in the Target Temperature Management (TTM) Trial randomly assigned to TTM at 33 °C or TTM at 36 °C for 24 h after OHCA. Fragments (tau-A and tau-C) of the neuronal protein tau were measured in serum 24, 48 and 72 h after OHCA. The primary endpoint was neurological outcome. Results: Median (quartile 1–quartile 3) tau-A (ng/ml) values were 58 (43–71) versus 51 (43–67), 72 (57–84) versus 71 (59–82) and 76 (61–92) versus 75 (64–89) for good versus unfavourable outcome at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively (pgroup = 0.95). Median tau C (ng/ml) values were 38 (29–50) versus 36 (29–49), 49 (38–58) versus 48 (33–59) and 48 (39–59) versus 48 (36–62) (pgroup = 0.95). Tau-A and tau-C did not predict neurological outcome (area under the receiver-operating curve at 48 h; tau-A: 0.51 and tau-C: 0.51). Conclusions: Serum levels of tau fragments were unable to predict neurological outcome after OHCA. © 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Heimburg, K., et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity after cardiac arrest; protocol of a sub-study in the Targeted Hypothermia versus Targeted Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest trial (TTM2)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation Plus. - : Elsevier. - 2666-5204. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors have lower levels of self-reported physical activity compared to a non-cardiac arrest (CA) control group who had acute myocardial infarction (MI). Additional aims are to explore potential predictors of physical inactivity (older age, female gender, problems with general physical function, global cognition, mental processing speed/attention, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, kinesiophobia, fatigue), and to investigate the relationship between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among OHCA-survivors. Methods: The Targeted Hypothermia versus Targeted Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest trial (TTM2-trial) collects information regarding age, gender, self-reported physical activity, general physical function, global cognition and mental processing speed/attention at 6 months after OHCA. In this TTM2-trial cross-sectional prospective sub-study, participants at selected sites are invited to an additional follow-up meeting within 4 weeks from the main study follow-up. At this meeting, information regarding anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, kinesiophobia and fatigue is collected. The OHCA-survivors are then provided with an objective measure of physical activity, a hip-placed accelerometer, to wear for one week, together with a training diary. At the end of the week, participants are asked to once again answer two self-reported questions regarding physical activity for that specific week. MI-controls attend a single follow-up meeting and perform the same assessments as the OHCA-survivors, except from wearing the accelerometer. We aim to include 110 OHCA-survivors and 110 MI-controls in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Conclusion: The results from this sub-study will provide novel information about physical activity among OHCA-survivors.
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