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1.
  • KOCKUM, I, et al. (författare)
  • Population analysis of protection by HLA-DR and DQ genes from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Swedish children with insulin-dependent diabetes and controls
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: European journal of immunogenetics : official journal of the British Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. - 0960-7420. ; 22:6, s. 443-465
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A negative association between insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and HLA‐DR, DQA1 or DQB1 was found in a large population‐based investigation of childhood‐onset patients (more than 420 patients) and controls (more than 340 controls) from Sweden. The relative risk was decreased for several haplotypes that were negatively associated with IDDM: DR15‐DQA1*0102‐DQB1*0602, DR7‐DQA1*0201‐DQB1*0303, DR14‐DQA1*0101‐DQB1*0503, DRI1‐DQAI*0501‐DQB1*0301, DR13‐DQA1*0103‐DQB1*0603 and DR4‐DQA1*0301‐DQB1*0301. In a relative predispositional effect (RPE) analysis, however, only the DR15‐DQA1*0102‐DQB1*0602 haplotype was significantly decreased, which suggests that the major protective effect for IDDM is carried by this haplotype. This was supported by the observation that all genotypes which were negatively associated with IDDM, except DR7/13, included at least one allele from the DR15‐DQA1*0102‐DQB1*0602 haplotype. Relative predispositional effect (RPE) analysis of genotypes showed further that the DR15‐DQA1*0102‐DQB1*0602 haplotype was also negatively associated with IDDM when combined with any other haplotype, whether negatively or positively associated with IDDM. This supports previous suggestions that DR15‐DQA1*0102‐DQB1*0602 acts dominantly. However, both the stratification and the predispositional allele test failed to distinguish the negative association between IDDM and DR15 from that of DQBT0602. On the other hand, these tests indicated that DQA1*0102 was not likely to explain the negative association between IDDM and the DR15‐DQA1*0102‐DQB1*0602 haplotype. We conclude that the
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2.
  • Graham, J, et al. (författare)
  • Negative association between type 1 diabetes and HLA DQB1*0602-DQA1*0102 is attenuated with age at onset
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunogenetics. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0960-7420. ; 26:2-3, s. 117-127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • HLA-associated relative risks of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus were analysed in population-based Swedish patients and controls aged 0-34 years. The age dependence of HLA-associated relative risks was assessed by likelihood ratio tests of regression parameters in separate logistic regression models for each HLA category. The analyses demonstrated an attenuation with increasing age at onset in the relative risk for the positively associated DQB1*0201-A1*0502/B1*0302-A1*0301 (DQ2/8) genotype (P = 0.02) and the negatively associated DQB1*0602-A1*0102 (DQ6.2) haplotype (P = 0.004). At birth, DQ6.2-positive individuals had an estimated relative risk of 0.03, but this increased to 1.1 at age 35 years. Relative risks for individuals with DQ genotype 8/8 or 8/X or DQ genotype 2/2 or 2/X, where X is any DQ haplotype ether than 2, 8 or 6.2, were not significantly age-dependent. An exploratory analysis of DQ haplotypes other than 2, 8 and 6.2 suggested that the risk of type 1 diabetes increases with age for DQB1*0604-A1*0102 (DQ6.4) and that the peak risk for the negatively associated DQB1*0301-A1*0501 haplotype is at age 18 years. There was also weak evidence that the risk for DQB1*0303-A1*0301 (DQ9), which has a positive association in the Japanese population, may decrease with age. We speculate that HLA-DQ alleles have a significant effect on the rate of beta cell destruction, which is accelerated in DQ2/8-positive individuals and inhibited, but not completely blocked, in DQ6.2-positive individuals.
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5.
  • Graham, J, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic effects on age-dependent onset and islet cell autoantibody markers in type 1 diabetes.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 51:5, s. 1346-1355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Age-dependent associations between type 1 diabetes risk genes HLA, INS VNTR, and CTLA-4 and autoantibodies to GAD65 (GADAs), ICA512/IA-2, insulin, and islet cells were determined by logistic regression analysis in 971 incident patients with type 1 diabetes and 702 control subjects aged 0-34 years. GADAs were associated with HLA-DQ2 in young but not in older patients (P = 0.009). Autoantibodies to insulin were negatively associated with age (P < 0.0001) but positively associated with DQ8 (P = 0.03) and with INS VNTR (P = 0.04), supporting possible immune tolerance induction. ICA512/IA-2 were negatively associated with age (P < 0.0001) and with DQ2 (P < 0.0001) but positively associated with DQ8 (P = 0.04). Males were more likely than females to be negative for GADA (P < 0.0001), autoantibodies to islet cells (P = 0.04), and all four autoantibody markers (P = 0.004). The CTLA-4 3' end microsatellite marker was not associated with any of the autoantibodies. We conclude that age and genetic factors such as HLA-DQ and INS VNTR need to be combined with islet autoantibody markers when evaluating the risk for type 1 diabetes development.
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8.
  • HAGOPIAN, WA, et al. (författare)
  • Glutamate decarboxylase-, insulin-, and islet cell-antibodies and HLA typing to detect diabetes in a general population-based study of Swedish children
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - Am Soc Clin Investig. - 0021-9738. ; 95:4, s. 1505-1511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most autoimmune diabetes occurs in those without a diabetic relative, but few cases are identifiable prospectively. To model general population prediction, 491 consecutive newly diabetic children from all of Sweden were tested for autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65ab), insulin (IAA), and islet cells (ICA), and for HLA-DQ genotypes by PCR; 415 matched control children were tested in parallel. GAD65ab sensitivity/specificity was 70/96%, versus 84/96% for ICA, 56/97% for IAA, 93/93% (any positive), 39/99.7% (all positive), and 41/99.7% (GAD65ab plus IAA). The latter's 25% predictive value was not improved by requiring concomitant high-risk HLA genotypes. GAD65ab were associated with DQA1*0501/B1*0201 (DQ2; P = 0.007) but not DQA1*0301/B1*0302 (DQ8), and IAA with DQA1*0301/B1*0302 (DQ8; P = 0.03) but not DQA1*0501/B1*0201 (DQ2). GAD65ab were more prevalent in females than males (79 vs. 63%; P < 0.0001) but did not vary with onset age nor season. Combining the three antibody assays yielded sufficient sensitivity for screening. GADab were relatively sensitive/specific for diabetes, but even with HLA marker combinations yielded predictive values insufficient for early immunointervention in the low-prevalence general population.
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9.
  • Kockum, I, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and immunological findings in patients with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Hormone and Metabolic Research. - Georg Thieme Verlag. - 0018-5043. ; 28:7, s. 344-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two large population-based case-control studies are reviewed. The aim is to determine the effects of HLA, other genetic factors and immune markers (ICA, IAA and GAD65Ab) on the age at onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in 0-34 year olds. The primary HLA risk gene sequence for IDDM was difficult to identify because of the low recombination frequency within the HLA region. The frequency of the DR3-DQA1 * 0501-DQB1 * 0201 haplotype and the DR3-DQA1 * 0501 DQB1 * 0201 (DQ2)/DR4-DQA1 * 0301-DQB1 * 0302 (DQ8) genotype were higher among patients diagnosed before the age of 10 compared with those diagnosed after the age of 30. The negatively associated haplotype, DR15-DQA1 * 0102-DQB1 * 0602 was absent before the age of 10, but the frequency increased with increasing age at onset. The IDDM2 gene representing the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences and 5' of the insulin gene on chromosome 11 were associated with IDDM since homozygous short VNTR was positive but not homozygous, and heterozygous long VNTR was negatively associated with the disease. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of GAD65 (GA65Ab) and insulin (IAA) autoantibodies varied with the age at onset and gender. GAD65Ab had the highest sensitivity (> 80%) in patients older than 20 years of age with no difference in gender. The lowest sensitivity (54%) was in 0-10 year old boys, while age did not affect the sensitivity in girls. In contrast, the sensitivity of IAA was highest (46%) before the age of 15 but decreased thereafter as did the sensitivity for ICA. Classification of patients who develop IDDM above 20-25 years of age was inadequate since many patients classified with NIDDM either had GAD65Ab or ICA or developed these antibodies after 1-2 years of NIDDM. We conclude that not only age but also gender affects the risk for IDDM associated with HLA, other IDDM genes as well as commonly used immunological markers for IDDM.
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10.
  • Lowe, Michael R., et al. (författare)
  • The length of the CTLA-4 microsatellite (AT)(N)-repeat affects the risk for type 1 diabetes
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Autoimmunity. - Taylor & Francis. - 0891-6934. ; 32:3, s. 173-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CTLA-4 is important to down-regulating T cell responses and has been implicated in type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus in both linkage and association studies. The aim of our study was to relate the polymorphic (AT)(n) microsatellite in the 3' untranslated sequence of the CTLA-4 gene to diabetes risk. We studied 616 consecutively diagnosed 0-34 year-old Swedish patients and 502 matched controls by PCR-based genotyping to determine the length of the 3'-end (AT)(n)repeat region of the CTLA-4 gene and categorizing alleles as predominantly monomorphic short (S) or highly polymorphic (in length) long (L) alleles. The odds of type 1 diabetes of subjects with the L/L genotype was estimated to be 1.84 times that of subjects with the S/S genotype (95% CI 1.44-2.73, p=0.002). Further analysis of the long alleles, partitioned into intermediate (I) length and very long (VL) alleles, suggested that L alleles act recessively in conferring diabetes risk (p=0.0009). This study suggests that the 3'-end (AT)(n) repeat region of the CTLA-4 gene represents a recessive risk factor for type 1 diabetes.
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