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  • Dahl, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Particle Emissions from Vehicle Tires
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Nordic Society for Aerosol Research (NOSA) Annual Symposia, 2004,Stockholm, Sweden,2004-11-11 - 2004-11-12. - : Stockholm University.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
  • Dahl, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Traffic-generated emissions of ultrafine particles from pavement-tire interface
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - : Elsevier. - 1352-2310 .- 1873-2844. ; 40:7, s. 1314-1323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a road simulator study, a significant source of sub-micrometer fine particles produced by the road-tire interface was observed. Since the particle size distribution and source strength is dependent on the type of tire used, it is likely that these particles largely originate from the tires, and not the road pavement. The particles consisted most likely of mineral oils from the softening filler and fragments of the carbon-reinforcing filler material (soot agglomerates). This identification was based on transmission electron microscopy studies of collected ultrafine wear particles and on-line thermal treatment using a thermodesorber. The mean particle number diameters were between 15-50 nm, similar to those found in light duty vehicle (LDV) tail-pipe exhaust. A simple box model approach was used to estimate emission factors in the size interval 15-700 nm. The emission factors increased with increasing vehicle speed, and varied between 3.7 x 10(11) and 3.2 x 10(12) particles vehicle(-1) km(-1) at speeds of 50 and 70 km h(-1). This corresponds to between 0.1-1% of tail-pipe emissions in real-world emission studies at similar speeds from a fleet of LDV with 95% gasoline and 5% diesel-fueled cars. The emission factors for particles originating from the road-tire interface were, however, similar in magnitude to particle number emission factors from liquefied petroleum gas-powered vehicles derived in test bench studies in Australia 2005. Thus the road-tire interface may be a significant contributor to particle emissions from ultraclean vehicles. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Dahl, M., et al. (författare)
  • Increased current flow enhances the risk of organic carbon loss from Zostera marina sediments: Insights from a flume experiment
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - 1939-5590 .- 0024-3590. ; 63:6, s. 2793-2805
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hydrodynamic processes are important for carbon storage dynamics in seagrass meadows, where periods of increased hydrodynamic activity could result in erosion and the loss of buried carbon. To estimate hydrodynamic impacts on the resuspension of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass-vegetated sediments, we exposed patches (0.35 × 0.35 cm) of Zostera marina (with different biomass, shoot densities, and sediment properties) to gradually increased unidirectional (current) flow velocities ranging from low (5 cm s−1) to high (26 cm s−1) in a hydraulic flume with a standardized water column height of 0.12 m. We found that higher flow velocities substantially increased (by more than threefold) the proportion of Corg in the suspended sediment resulting in a loss of up to 5.5% ± 1.7% (mean ± SE) Corg from the surface sediment. This was presumably due to increased surface erosion of larger, carbon-rich detritus particles. Resuspension of Corg in the seagrass plots correlated with sediment properties (i.e., bulk density, porosity, and sedimentary Corg) and seagrass plant structure (i.e., belowground biomass). However, shoot density had no influence on Corg resuspension (comparing unvegetated sediments with sparse, moderate, and dense seagrass bed types), which could be due to the relatively low shoot density in the experimental setup (with a maximum of 253 shoots m−2) reflecting natural conditions of the Swedish west coast. The projected increase in the frequency and intensity of hydrodynamic forces due to climate change could thus negatively affect the function of seagrass meadows as natural carbon sinks. © 2018 The Authors. Limnology and Oceanography published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography
  • Dahl, M., et al. (författare)
  • Lentiviral Gene Therapy Using Cellular Promoters Cures Type 1 Gaucher Disease in Mice
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Therapy. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1525-0016 .- 1525-0024. ; 23:5, s. 835-844
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gaucher disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme glucosylceramidase. Due to the lack of a fully functional enzyme, there is progressive build-up of the lipid component glucosylceramide. Insufficient glucosylceramidase activity results in hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, and bone disease in patients. Gene therapy represents a future therapeutic option for patients unresponsive to enzyme replacement therapy and lacking a suitable bone marrow donor. By proof-of-principle experiments, we have previously demonstrated a reversal of symptoms in a murine disease model of type 1 Gaucher disease, using gammaretroviral vectors harboring strong viral promoters to drive glucosidase beta-acid (GBA) gene expression. To investigate whether safer vectors can correct the enzyme deficiency, we utilized self-inactivating lentiviral vectors (SIN LVs) with the GBA gene under the control of human phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and CD68 promoter, respectively. Here, we report prevention of, as well as reversal of, manifest disease symptoms after lentiviral gene transfer. Glucosylceramidase activity above levels required for clearance of glucosylceramide from tissues resulted in reversal of splenomegaly, reduced Gaucher cell infiltration and a restoration of hematological parameters. These findings support the use of SIN-LVs with cellular promoters in future clinical gene therapy protocols for type 1 Gaucher disease.
  • Dahl, M., et al. (författare)
  • Sediment properties as important predictors of carbon storage in Zostera marina meadows: A comparison of four European areas
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 11:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Seagrass ecosystems are important natural carbon sinks but their efficiency varies greatly depending on species composition and environmental conditions. What causes this variation is not fully known and could have important implications for management and protection of the seagrass habitat to continue to act as a natural carbon sink. Here, we assessed sedimentary organic carbon in Zostera marina meadows (and adjacent unvegetated sediment) in four distinct areas of Europe (Gullmar Fjord on the Swedish Skagerrak coast, Askö in the Baltic Sea, Sozopol in the Black Sea and Ria Formosa in southern Portugal) down to ∼35 cm depth. We also tested how sedimentary organic carbon in Z. marina meadows relates to different sediment characteristics, a range of seagrass-associated variables and water depth. The seagrass carbon storage varied greatly among areas, with an average organic carbon content ranging from 2.79 ± 0.50% in the Gullmar Fjord to 0.17 ± 0.02% in the area of Sozopol. We found that a high proportion of fine grain size, high porosity and low density of the sediment is strongly related to high carbon content in Z. marina sediment. We suggest that sediment properties should be included as an important factor when evaluating high priority areas in management of Z. marina generated carbon sinks. © 2016 Dahl et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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