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Sökning: WFRF:(Dahl Morten)

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1.
  • Silventoinen, Karri, et al. (författare)
  • The CODATwins Project : The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - Cambridge University Press. - 1832-4274 .- 1839-2628. ; 18:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.</p>
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  • Dahl, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • Stiffness and thickness of Fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. - 0009-921X .- 1528-1132. ; 469:12, s. 3495-3500
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background   Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown.</p> <p>Questions/purposes   We investigated whether the stiffness or thickness of the muscle fascia could help explain the raised intramuscular pressure and thus the associated chronic compartment syndrome symptoms.</p> <p>Patients and Methods   We performed plain radiography, bone scan, and intramuscular pressure measurement to diagnose chronic compartment syndrome and to exclude other disorders. Anterior tibialis muscle fascial biopsy specimens from six healthy individuals, 11 patients with chronic compartment syndrome, and 10 patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic compartment syndrome were obtained. Weight-normalized fascial stiffness was assessed mechanically in a microtensile machine, and fascial thickness was analyzed microscopically.</p> <p>Results   Mean fascial stiffness did not differ between healthy individuals (0.120 N/mg/mm; SD, 0.77 N/mg/mm), patients with chronic compartment syndrome (0.070 N/mg/mm; SD, 0.052 N/mg/mm), and patients with chronic compartment syndrome and diabetes (0.097 N/mg/mm; SD, 0.073 N/mg/mm). Similarly, no differences in fascial thickness were present. There was a negative correlation between fascial stiffness and intramuscular pressure in the patients with chronic compartment syndrome and diabetes.</p> <p>Conclusions   The lack of difference in fascial thickness and stiffness in patients with chronic compartment syndrome and patients with chronic compartment syndrome and diabetes compared with healthy individuals suggests structural and mechanical properties are unlikely to explain chronic compartment syndrome. To prevent chronic exertional compartment syndrome, it is necessary to address aspects other than the muscle fascia.</p>
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4.
  • Hansen, Morten Sejer, et al. (författare)
  • Brain resting-state connectivity in the development of secondary hyperalgesia in healthy men
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain Structure and Function. - Springer. - 1863-2653. ; 224:3, s. 1119-1139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Central sensitization is a condition in which there is an abnormal responsiveness to nociceptive stimuli. As such, the process may contribute to the development and maintenance of pain. Factors influencing the propensity for development of central sensitization have been a subject of intense debate and remain elusive. Injury-induced secondary hyperalgesia can be elicited by experimental pain models in humans, and is believed to be a result of central sensitization. Secondary hyperalgesia may thus reflect the individual level of central sensitization. The objective of this study was to investigate possible associations between increasing size of secondary hyperalgesia area and brain connectivity in known resting-state networks. We recruited 121 healthy participants (male, age 22, SD 3.35) who underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Prior to the scan session, areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization (3 min. 45 °C heat stimulation) were evaluated in all participants. 115 participants were included in the final analysis. We found a positive correlation (increasing connectivity) with increasing area of secondary hyperalgesia in the sensorimotor- and default mode networks. We also observed a negative correlation (decreasing connectivity) with increasing secondary hyperalgesia area in the sensorimotor-, fronto-parietal-, and default mode networks. Our findings indicate that increasing area of secondary hyperalgesia is associated with increasing and decreasing connectivity in multiple networks, suggesting that differences in the propensity for central sensitization, assessed as secondary hyperalgesia areas, may be expressed as differences in the resting-state central neuronal activity.
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5.
  • Hansen, Morten S., et al. (författare)
  • The association between areas of secondary hyperalgesia and volumes of the caudate nuclei and other pain relevant brain structures—A 3-tesla MRI study of healthy men
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 13:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Central sensitization plays a pivotal role in maintenance of pain and is believed to be intricately involved in several chronic pain conditions. One clinical manifestation of central sensitization is secondary hyperalgesia. The degree of secondary hyperalgesia presumably reflects individual levels of central sensitization. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between areas of secondary hyperalgesia and volumes of the caudate nuclei and other brain structures involved in pain processing. Materials and methods We recruited 121 healthy male participants; 118 were included in the final analysis. All participants underwent whole brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to MRI, all participants underwent pain testing. Secondary hyperalgesia was induced by brief thermal sensitization. Additionally, we recorded heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT), pain during one minute thermal stimulation (p-TS) and results of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HADS). Results We found no significant associations between the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia and the volume of the caudate nuclei or of the following structures: primary somatosensory cortex, anterior and mid cingulate cortex, putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, insula and the cerebellum. Likewise, we found no significant associations between the volume of the caudate nuclei and HPDTs, p-TS, PCS and HADS. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the size of the secondary hyperalgesia area is not associated with the volume of brain structures relevant for pain processing, suggesting that the propensity to develop central sensitization, assessed as secondary hyperalgesia, is not correlated to brain structure volume.
6.
  • Krogvold, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of a low-grade enteroviral infection in the islets of Langerhans of living patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 64:5, s. 1682-1687
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The Diabetes Virus Detection study (DiViD) is the first to examine fresh pancreatic tissue at the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for the presence of viruses. Minimal pancreatic tail resection was performed 3-9 weeks after onset of type 1 diabetes in 6 adult patients (age 24-35 years). The presence of enteroviral capsid protein 1 (VP1) and the expression of class I HLA were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Enterovirus RNA was analyzed from isolated pancreatic islets and from fresh frozen whole pancreatic tissue using PCR and sequencing. Non-diabetic organ donors served as controls. VP1 was detected in the islets of all type 1 diabetes patients (2 of 9 controls). Hyperexpression of class I HLA molecules was found in the islets of all patients (1 of 9 controls). Enterovirus specific RNA sequences were detected in 4 of 6 cases (0 of 6 controls). The results were confirmed in different laboratories. Only 1.7 % of the islets contained VP1 positive cells and the amount of enterovirus RNA was low. The results provides evidence for the presence of enterovirus in pancreatic islets of type 1 diabetic patients, being consistent with the possibility that a low grade enteroviral infection in the pancreatic islets contribute to disease progression in humans.</p>
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7.
  • Reist, James D., et al. (författare)
  • SWIPA Synthesis: Implications of Findings
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (swipa): Climate Change and the Cryosphere. - Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). - 978-82-7971-071-4 ; s. 1-15
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
8.
  • Skov, Vibe, et al. (författare)
  • A 7-gene signature depicts the biochemical profile of early prefibrotic myelofibrosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of patients classified as essential thrombocythemia (ET) actually have early primary prefibrotic myelofibrosis (prePMF), which implies an inferior prognosis as compared to patients being diagnosed with so-called genuine or true ET. According to theWorld Health Organization (WHO) 2008 classification, bone marrow histology is a major component in the distinction between these disease entities. However, the differential diagnosis between themmay be challenging and several studies have not been able to distinguish between them.Most lately, it has been argued that simple blood tests, including the leukocyte count and plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) may be useful tools to separate genuine ET from prePMF, the latter disease entity more often being featured by anemia, leukocytosis and elevated LDH.Whole blood gene expression profiling was performed in 17 and 9 patients diagnosed with ET and PMF, respectively. Using elevated LDH obtained at the time of diagnosis as a marker of prePMF, a 7-gene signature was identified which correctly predicted the prePMF group with a sensitivity of 100%and a specificity of 89%. The 7 genes included MPO, CEACAM8, CRISP3, MS4A3, CEACAM6, HEMGN, andMMP8, which are genes known to be involved in inflammation, cell adhesion, differentiation and proliferation. Evaluation of bone marrow biopsies and the 7-gene signature showed a concordance rate of 71%, 79%, 62%, and 38%. Our 7-gene signature may be a useful tool to differentiate between genuine ET and prePMF but needs to be validated in a larger cohort of "ET" patients.
9.
  • Suppli, Morten Hiul, et al. (författare)
  • Premature Termination of a Randomized Controlled Trial on Image-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Oncologist. - AlphaMed Press. - 1083-7159. ; 25:3, s. 210-422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lessons Learned: It is possible to plan and treat some patients with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in a timely fashion in an acute setting. Advanced and, in some indications, already implemented technologies such as SBRT are difficult to test in a randomized trial. Background: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) could be an alternative to decompressive surgery followed by fractionated radiotherapy. Methods: In a randomized, single-institution, noninferiority trial, patients with MSCC were assigned to stereotactic body radiotherapy of 16 Gy in 1 fraction or decompression surgery followed by fractionated radiotherapy of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Primary endpoint was ability to walk by EQ5D-5L questionnaire. Based on power calculations, 130 patients had to be included to be 89% sure that a 15% difference between the treatment arm and the experimental arm could be detected. Results: Ten patients were accrued in 23 months, with six patients allocated to surgery and four patients to stereotactic body radiotherapy. The trial was closed prematurely because of poor accrual. One patient undergoing surgery and one patient undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy were unable to walk at 6 weeks. Two patients were not evaluable at 6 weeks. Conclusion: A randomized, phase II, clinical trial comparing surgery followed by fractionated radiotherapy or image-guided SBRT of MSCC was initiated. SBRT was shown to be feasible, with three out of four patients retaining walking function. The trial was determined futile as a result of low accrual.
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