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Sökning: WFRF:(Dahlberg Gunilla Professor)

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1.
  • Aure, Venke, 1954- (författare)
  • Kampen om blikket : En longitudinell studie der formidling av kunst til barn og unge danner utgangspunkt for kunstdidaktiske diskursanalyser
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Interest in how children and young people encounter art has been the driving force behind this thesis. I have focused on how the target group's meeting with art in art museums, but also schools, can help to develop knowledge and understanding of the dissemination process. The study is empirical based, involving observations and interviews with 20 participants during several years.</p><p>Perspectivation under the first phase of the study centered largely on analyzing art didactics as a complex phenomenon in the interface between the adults' intentions, rationales and decisions at different planning levels and the experiences of children and young people related to dissemination activities. As established dissemination theory did not provide a case related conceptual framework for analyzing the empirical material arising from the interrelationship between the visual arts and didactics, the empirical focus of the thesis was supplemented with a conceptual and more developed theoretical perspective. The research focus came to be concentrated on incorporating the phenomenon of art dissemination into an epistemological, theoretical and art paradigmatic discourse. Theories connected with youth culture are applied to highlight children and young people as co-constructors in their encounters with art.</p><p>The empirical data refers to the conflict between the modernist established doxa of the dissemination field and the more postmodernist, relational orientation of the informants. As a basis for the understanding and processing of the field of study, I chose a constructivist research perspective that emphasizes that texts are always written from a specific position embedded in different theories and values.   </p>
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2.
  • Elfström, Ingela, 1954- (författare)
  • Uppföljning och utvärdering för förändring pedagogisk dokumentation som grund för kontinuerlig verksamhetsutveckling och systematiskt kvalitetsarbete i förskolan
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The purpose of the study is to examine, in relation to the curriculum for the Swedish preschool demands of assessment, evaluation and documentation what kind of knowledge that becomes possible through the use of pedagogical documentation, and how this knowledge answers to expectations of development of content, form and organisation of the early childhood educational context. Another purpose is to examine what a post-pragmatic perspective and an immanent idea of evaluation can imply for the two-folded task of the preschool: the societal reproduction of knowledge and the staging of possibilities for children’s own production of knowledge. Three theoretical perspectives have been used: curriculum theory, post-structural theory and an immanent philosophical perspective. Curriculum theory points out that it is essential to use and develop perspectives and methods of evaluation that relates to the goals of the preschool as tools for evaluation govern and shape both questions and analysis. The main study here is directed towards examining pedagogical documentation through an empirical study of one preschool’s use of pedagogical documentation during one year. When dealing with the empirical material my intention has been to make visible both kind of learning processes that this study interprets that the curriculum prescribes. Therefore one method used where curriculum theory and descriptions and categorisations as a part of a discursive analysis of how teachers use pedagogical documentation together with the children and in their planning-sessions. The second method consists of an immanent following up of the rhizomatic web of threads that appear and transform through the practice and where pedagogical documentation is part of the relational field of potentiality. </p><p> </p>
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3.
  • Hammarström-Lewenhagen, Birgitta, 1951- (författare)
  • Den unika möjligheten - en studie av den svenska förskolemodellen 1968-1998
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The Swedish preschool-model interlaces care, nurturing and learning and is organised to solve twin functions; providing children a playbased learning-environment and enabling parents to combine parenthood with work.</p><p>The model was developed within the social sector then incorporated into the educational system 1998. This shift and the model´s “unique characteristics” praised by OECD formed the point of departure for this study.</p><p>The aim of the thesis is to describe and analyse the discussions and negotiations shaping the Swedish preschool-model during 1968-1998. The research questions address: discursive themes; actors involved; governmental intentions; claims about the preschool´s task, pedagogical content and the preschool´s institutional identity and relationship to the institutions: social service, school and family. The study utilized abductive textual analysis inspired by discourse analysis and narrative approaches. Main text sources are: official reports, bills, steering documents, the preschool teachers´ periodical 1968 -1998 and a media debate.</p><p>The results illuminate preschool-teachers´ struggle for a pedagogical identity and the construction of the educareconcept as a flexible and pragmatic solution to several societal interests and values.</p><p>Governmental intentions concerning equality, emancipation and democratization have had great influence on the process in combination with a recurring theme about a revised preschool pedagogy with a strengthened focus on children´s learning. Political efforts to foster a preschool for all in a future are identified and described as one of the main discursive themes. Different standpoints about earlier school start are analyzed.  The overall result is that the framework and core features of the model laid down by the National Commission on Child care still has a great impact on the launched syllabus (Lpfö) in the end of the period as on the curriculum in a broader sense.</p>
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4.
  • Blomdahl, Eva, 1953- (författare)
  • Teknik i skolan en studie av teknikundervisning för yngre skolbarn
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The main purpose of this study is to find out how technology as a school subject is formed into pedagogical action. Issues addressed are:</p> <p>– How does teaching in the school subject of technology differ in terms of content and process?</p> <p>– How do frame factors influence teaching in technology?</p> <p>As analytic tools, concepts from philosophical thought on technology and education as well as frame factor theory are used to throw light on the way technology education takes shape in the practices of two primary school teachers. The philosophical concepts employed and developed have been inspired by the thinking of Martin Heidegger and John Dewey. These con-cepts are “place” and “shaping of technology,” where the shaping of tech-no¬logy involves the following phases: formulation of the assignment, analysis, visualization/construction and evaluation/reflection.</p> <p>The basic questions are investigated in two case studies over a period of one year. Data is collected based on ethnographic methods and consists of observations, video recordings, documentation in the form of teachers’ diaries as well as pupils’ work, taped interviews with pupils, and interviews with the two teachers both before and after the project was finished.</p> <p>The overall results of the study show that the two teachers, to a different degree, use place, e.g. they try to use the children’s own experiences and the surrounding environment as a starting point in their teaching. They try to organize their teaching as a process of knowledge construction instead of as a process of transmission. In that process, different forms of represen¬tation are used, such as sketches, model constructions and written docu¬mentation, with the element of model construction providing a common denominator given the availability of tools and material. Another similarity between the practices is that the children are given opportunities to work at problem solving in cases where there are no given solutions. However, they enter problems due to their own embodiment in a pedagogy of transmission, which results in the fact that the shaping of technology becomes difficult to organize. Strict borders between subjects, the fragmented timetable of the school, and the organization of the classroom space and scarce equipment and materials all influence the possibilities of teaching in technology.</p>
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5.
  • Bremer, Anders, 1957- (författare)
  • När livet skakas om patienters och närståendes erfarenheter av hjärtstopp utanför sjukhus
  • 2008
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>I Europa vårdar ambulanspersonal årligen cirka 300 000 människor med hjärtstopp. Ungefär en av tio överlever. Tidigare forskning har inte i någon större utsträckning berört hur överlevande patienter och närstående mår efteråt eller vilka etiska aspekter och problem som möter ambulanspersonal i dessa situationer. Med hjälp av en reflekterande livsvärldsansats är syftet med denna licentiatavhandling att beskriva vad det innebär att överleva hjärtstopp utanför sjukhus respektive närvara vid en nära persons hjärtstopp. Med utgångspunkt i det empiriska resultatet är syftet att belysa och diskutera etiska aspekter och problem av betydelse för ambulanspersonals vårdande ur ett normativt perspektiv.</p><p>Avhandlingens empiriska resultat visar hur ogripbart det är att drabbas av hjärtstopp och hur uppvaknandet ur medvetslösheten innebär vilsenhet och kontrollförlust genom den minneslucka som tillfogats. Att överleva innebär därför ett sökande efter sammanhang så att situationen kan ges mening och förklaring till tankar, känslor och upplevelser. Känslan av sammanhang nås via andra människors berättelser tillsammans med egna minnen. I det fortsatta livet finns existentiell rädsla och otrygghet där den egna identiteten och meningen i livet omvärderas i takt med en växande insikt om hur den egna kroppen påverkats av hjärtstoppet. Ibland upplevs kroppen som begränsad vilket skapar otrygghet och rädsla. I det fortsatta livet kan det finnas skuldkänslor för det inträffade likväl som att hjärtstoppet ses som en opåverkbar händelse. Men det finns även tacksamhet och glädje över välbefinnande och trygghet i ett förändrat liv där vardagliga sysslor ger tillvaron en viss stadga. Det passerade livshotet införlivas i ett liv där mänskliga relationer blivit än viktigare värden i ett gott liv.</p><p>Närvaro vid en nära persons hjärtstopp omkullkastar känslan av kontroll. Allt upplevs overkligt, tiden tycks stanna upp och samtidigt är verkligheten extremt påtaglig. Förvåning övergår snabbt till ett kaos av tankar och känslor där panik, chock och fruktan griper tag. Verkligheten innebär ett överväldigande och ensamt ansvar där närstående känner sig otillräckliga. Väntan på professionell hjälp känns lång och det är en befriande känsla då ambulanspersonal anländer och övertar ansvaret. Samtidigt väcks hopp om att patienten ska överleva. För närstående är allt kaotiskt, ångestfyllt och omtumlande då de kastas mellan hopp och misströstan för att slutligen få ett overkligt och ogripbart besked om den nära personens överlevnad eller död. Livets grundvalar skakas om och uppmärksammar livets skörhet och att inget kan tas för givet. Efter händelsen finns obesvarade frågor och oro som riskerar att leda till ensamhet i sorg eller i en oro för den överlevandes framtid. Oavsett vilket, riskerar ensamheten att leda till uppoffring av egna och viktiga behov.</p><p>I ett gott beslut balanseras etiska normer att rädda liv, rätten till värdig/god död, autonomiprincipen samt att göra gott och inte skada. Den övergripande normen vid hjärtstopp är att rädda liv. Att i det akuta skedet avgöra om patienten räddas till ett acceptabelt liv är svårt. Det empiriska resultatet ger dock stöd för att återupplivning bör göras vid behandlingsbara hjärtstopp samtidigt som resultatet visar hur svårt det är att dra en gräns för vad ett acceptabelt liv är. Undantagsvis är det goda beslutet att avstå från eller avbryta återupplivning, exempelvis vid förekomst av ett giltigt förhandsdirektiv. En värdig/god död är då det primära. Ett utökat etiskt ansvar för ambulanssjuksköterskor kan vara att de ges beslutsrätt för avbrytande av återupplivning. Ett annat ansvar handlar om möjligheten att främja ett gott liv för överlevande genom att efteråt bidra med kunskap som kan skapa förlorade sammanhang. Ansvaret för närstående kan innebära att meningslös återupplivning inte görs ”för deras skull” utan att deras behov möts på bättre sätt.</p>
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6.
  • Carlsson, Gunilla (författare)
  • Det våldsamma mötets fenomenologi - om hot och våld i psykiatrisk vård
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The present study focuses on the phenomenology of the violent encounter, and is to be understood as the study of the violent encounter as a phenomenon, i.e. as experienced. The overall aim is to elucidate, analyse and describe violent encounters within psychiatric care as experienced by carers and patients. Moreover, the study aims at promoting the development of a phenomenological research approach in caring science in general and elucidating tacit caring knowledge in particular.</p><p>The thesis includes three empirical studies and one methodological study. The research is guided by a phenomenological and lifeworld theoretical approach. Research data consist of narratives and qualitative interviews, as well as reenactment interviews with carers and patients. Data are analysed for meaning. The analysis and synthesis of meaning are aimed at openness and meaning sensitivity through a reflective attitude characterised by the intent to bridle the process of understanding. The goal of the analysis is to describe the general structure of the phenomenon and its meaning constituents.</p><p>The result shows that violence and threat do not evolve in “naked” caring, characterised by encounters where carers are able to touch their patients at the same time as being touched, speaking both literally and figuratively. It is through “naked” caring and caring touch that the carers are able to reach the patients and to give undisguised invitations to genuine presence. The possibilities of touch rely on the carers’ capacity to be authentic and to genuinely wish well. Violence is on the contrary nourished by touch without caring intention, or non-touch, i.e. caring where the reciprocity of touching and being touched is missing between patients and caregivers.</p><p>In the discussion, the different meanings of the violent encounter are related to the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty and Lévinas. The philosophical dimensions of touch are investigated and it is discussed how the “naked” encounter can be understood from a phenomenological ethical standpoint. The discussion focuses on the caregivers’ vulnerability and the high demands they are subjected to. It is also argued that a foundation of caring science is needed in caring practice in order to make possible a development of a caring attitude that prevents violence.</p>
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7.
  • Halvars-Franzén, Bodil, 1959- (författare)
  • Barn och etik möten och möjlighetsvillkor i två förskoleklassers vardag
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The aim is to examine how children create and embody ethics by analyzing their encounters and how possibilities are conditioned by the framework surrounding them. The focus has been on the following problem areas:</p> <ul> <li>Conditions that enable children’s ethical encounters with regard to frameworks, rules and order</li> <li>Conditions that enable children’s ethical encounters related to the teachers’ approach</li> <li>Children’s encounters in play from an ethical perspective</li> <li>Children’s encounters with nature from an ethical perspective</li> </ul> <p>The theoretical standpoint is ”the ethics of an encounter” from Emmanuel Levinas’ idea of ethics of alterity. In ethics which precedes being itself, the ethical becoming and its relational aspects appear in the encounter with the Other. The tools of analysis are mainly drawn from previous pedagogical/didactical research in ethics which highlights the ethical conditions, such as listening, encounters with diversity and differences, and preschool/school as an ethical space.</p> <p>The study is based on one year of ethnographical field studies relying on participant observations, video observations, focus groups, stimulated recalls and guided tours. The empirical findings show that rules and frameworks which regulate the everyday life of the preschool classes are repeatedly negotiated. The negotiations about “what’s what?”, where both the children and the teachers are involved, take place on a verbal and a bodily level. In the pedagogues’ approach, the listening is a central and complex condition for the ethical space in the preschool classes. In the children’s encounters in play and in their encounters with nature the relational aspect becomes clear. The ethical boundaries and the fixing of those boundaries are discussed in connection with the idea of the ethics of an encounter and the vision of preschool/school as a potential ethical space.</p>
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8.
  • Håkanson, Christer, 1944- (författare)
  • Lärares yrkeslandskap : ett institutionellt perspektiv
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>School education takes place in an institution, which means certain restrictions on how teaching can be arranged and what learning processes can be established. The purpose of the present study is to examine the possible consequences of the institutional conditions characterising a school for teachers’ work. The object of analyses is teachers’ work as part of and a response to the institutional conditions and the more specific question is about the consequences of those conditions seen in relation to the task of preparing pupils to become active citizens.</p> <p>The analyses is directed towards a critical interpretation of the institutional conditions, based on a view that social processes are contradictory and characterised by power relations and that an awareness of restrictions will make it easier to overcome or change them. Insight into what forces make up a situation will facilitate social action.</p> <p>An institutional analysis presupposes institutionally related concepts, why some concepts which are not too frequently used in educational contexts have been introduced. These institutionally oriented conceptual tools aim at clarifying what implications for actions are built into different situations. They indicate current restrictions, but still leave room for alternative actions.</p> <p>The main focus of the study is on the classroom as a room for communication and learning seen in relation to processes of reflection, dialogue and experience which have been defined as necessary parts of a citizen education project. The conclusion is that teachers’ working conditions are contradictory from different points of view. There is a lack of coherence between programmatic goals and conditions offered to fulfil them, but there are also contradictions built into current teaching practices. Institutionalisation implies a limitation of the social space for action and a tendency to overlook the complexity of social processes. This does not mean that reflection, dialogue and experience do not occur in a classroom, but it means that this is rather an exception than a rule, and to accomplish a change presupposes changed institutional conditions.</p>
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9.
  • Källerwald, Susanne, 1963- (författare)
  • I skuggan av en hotad existens Om den onödiga striden mellan biologi och existens i vården av patienter med malignt lymfom
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The purpose of this thesis is to describe what it is like to suffer from malignant lymphoma and to highlight the care given to these patients. A reflective lifeworld approach, founded in phenomenological philosophy, has been used. Data have been collected using interviews and have been analyzed using essence-seeking analysis. The results are founded upon three empirical studies and a philosophical excursus. The results are presented in four sections.</p><p>The thesis describes how patients with malignant lymphoma live in limbo characterized by existential uncertainties, partly caused by the mortal threat of the disease and by failings in the actions of the healthcare staff. Patients fear dying when suffering from malignant lymphoma, regardless of whether the disease is a genuine medical threat to their life. Thus, there is a substantial need for existential support for these patients. However, the results show that deficiencies in existential support can lead to patients feeling objectified, which in turn increases their existential uncertainties. Care that is solely directed towards the physiological body and excludes the human as a subject can be experienced as a disparagement.</p><p>Care that includes the patients’ lifeworld provides alleviated suffering and a possibility for the patients themselves to take an active part in the health process. Despite the healthcare staff’s genuine ambition to alleviate the suffering, patients’ existential questions are met with a degree of conflict; on the one hand they are a natural part of healthcare, and on the other the questions are of such character that they are not part of professional healthcare. A healthcare culture that does not fully acknowledge the importance of existential questions appears to be one of the greatest obstacles to a holistic healthcare approach. Furthermore, there appears to be a lack of shared strategies among the healthcare staff when meeting the patients’ existential questions. A conflict arises in an unnecessary battle between biology and existence, which in turn increases the patients’ existential insecurities.</p><p>Medical knowledge is insufficient in caring for patients with malignant lymphoma. An understanding of caring science is needed in order for the care to become caring and able to meet the needs as described by patients with malignant lymphoma. Healthcare staff most be provided with sufficient support to meet the patients’ existential questions. The organization of healthcare is characterised by being a culture in which existential questions are not given sufficient attention. It seems that healthcare staff give priority to medical/technical tasks rather than conversations of existential character.</p>
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10.
  • Nordin-Hultman, Elisabeth, 1941- (författare)
  • Pedagogiska miljöer och barns subjektskapande
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The main purpose of the study is to provide perspectives and contribute to the discussion about how children´s identities and subjectivity are made in pre-schools and schools; both how children look upon and understand themselves in the educational context and how they are perceived and described by others. The intentions have been to open possibilities to regard the educational environment as an important condition for children´s behaviour and doings and thus as conditions for their level of performance and for the identity that is ascribed to each child.</p><p>The study is framed within a postmodern, or constructionistic, perspective. Through what is called the postmodern “linguistic turn” the dominant psychological focus on children´s characteristics, “inner” world and earlier experiencies could move towards a focus on concepts, theories and pedagogical practices as decisive of how children are seen and described.</p><p>The first part of the study focuses on the organization of time, space and materials in preschools and classrooms. The analyses indicate that the materials for children´s activities and learning are relatively sparse and limited, with small variations and little materials that can be seen as easy to concentrate on and that catch and keep children´s attention. The regulations of time and space can be seen as surprisingly strong. Rooms and materials are strongly classified and framed. This indicates a small space in terms of children´s influence and demands a great deal of adaptation of each child. Historically this way of organizing pedagogical environments seems dominant in the Swedish tradition during the 2000th century.</p><p>The second part focuses on different theoretical understandings of child – environment relations. The purpose is firstly to understand the strong tendency to individualize children´s behaviour and what happens in pre-schools and classrooms – despite the dominant theories of interactionism. This is accomplished by investigating the central theoretical concepts “individual”, “identity” and “development” as constituted within the Western modernistic tradition and as carrying meanings that individualize the relation between child and environment. Secondly the purpose is to create a theoretical space tounderstand children´s behaviour, performances and identities as changing and as inseparable of actual environments and situations. This is accomplished by using poststructural theories of subjectivity and the individual´s relation to the environment.</p><p>The uniform and homogenous environment restricts children´s different ways to create meaningfulness and to relate positively to affordances and educational tasks. This increases the risks of exclusion and that more children are perceived as failing and deviating. A prerequisite for children´s diversities and variations to be acknowledged and accepted is that also pre-schools and classrooms are characterized by diversity and variation.</p>
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