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Sökning: WFRF:(Dahlman Ingrid)

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1.
  • Jiao, Hong, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Association and Gene Expression Analysis Identify FGFR1 as a New Susceptibility Gene for Human Obesity.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 96:6, s. E962-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Previous studies suggest a role for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) in the regulation of energy balance. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether FGFR1 is an obesity gene by genetic association and functional studies. Design: The study was designed to genotype common FGFR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in large cohorts, confirm significant results in additional cohorts, and measure FGFR1 expression in human adipose tissue and in rodent hypothalamus. Setting: General community and referral centers for specialized care was the setting for the study. Participants: We genotyped FGFR1 SNP in 2438 obese and 2115 lean adults and 985 obese and 532 population-based children. Results were confirmed in 928 obese and 2738 population-based adults and 487 obese and 441 lean children. Abdominal sc adipose tissue was investigated in 202 subjects. We also investigated diet-induced, obese fasting, and fed rats. Main Outcome Measures: We analyzed the association between FGFR1 SNP and obesity. In secondary analyses, we related adipose FGFR1 expression to genotype, obesity, and degree of fat cell differentiation and related hypothalamic FGFR1 to energy balance. Results: FGFR1 rs7012413*T was nominally associated with obesity in all four cohorts; metaanalysis odds ratio = 1.17 (95 % confidence interval = 1.10-1.25), and P = 1.8 × 10(-6), which was P = 7.0 × 10(-8) in the recessive model. rs7012413*T was associated with FGFR1 expression in adipose tissue (P < 0.0001). In this organ, but not in skeletal muscle, FGFR1 mRNA (P < 0.0001) and protein (P < 0.05) were increased in obesity. In rats, hypothalamic expression of FGFR1 declined after fasting (P < ]0.001) and increased after diet-induced obesity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: FGFR1 is a novel obesity gene that may promote obesity by influencing adipose tissue and the hypothalamic control of appetite.
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2.
  • Jiao, Hong, et al. (författare)
  • Genome wide association study identifies KCNMA1 contributing to human obesity
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genomics. - 1755-8794 .- 1755-8794. ; 4, s. 51-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Recent genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with obesity. However, the reported genetic variation in obesity explains only a minor fraction of the total genetic variation expected to be present in the population. Thus many genetic variants controlling obesity remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to use GWA followed by multiple stepwise validations to identify additional genes associated with obesity. Methods: We performed a GWA analysis in 164 morbidly obese subjects (BMI: body mass index > 40 kg/m(2)) and 163 Swedish subjects (> 45 years) who had always been lean. The 700 SNPs displaying the strongest association with obesity in the GWA were analyzed in a second cohort comprising 460 morbidly obese subjects and 247 consistently lean Swedish adults. 23 SNPs remained significantly associated with obesity (nominal P< 0.05) and were in a step-wise manner followed up in five additional cohorts from Sweden, France, and Germany together comprising 4214 obese and 5417 lean or population-based control individuals. Three samples, n = 4133, were used to investigate the population-based associations with BMI. Gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to obesity was investigated for 14 adults. Results: Potassium channel, calcium activated, large conductance, subfamily M, alpha member (KCNMA1) rs2116830*G and BDNF rs988712*G were associated with obesity in five of six investigated case-control cohorts. In meta-analysis of 4838 obese and 5827 control subjects we obtained genome-wide significant allelic association with obesity for KCNMA1 rs2116830*G with P = 2.82 x 10(-10) and an odds ratio (OR) based on cases vs controls of 1.26 [95% C. I. 1.12-1.41] and for BDNF rs988712*G with P = 5.2 x 10(-17) and an OR of 1.36 [95% C. I. 1.20-1.55]. KCNMA1 rs2116830*G was not associated with BMI in the population-based samples. Adipose tissue (P = 0.0001) and fat cell (P = 0.04) expression of KCNMA1 was increased in obesity. Conclusions: We have identified KCNMA1 as a new susceptibility locus for obesity, and confirmed the association of the BDNF locus at the genome-wide significant level.
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3.
  • Arner, P., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 associates with weight loss and poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 10:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cancer cachexia (CC) is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia. Design/Subjects: Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32) or without (n = 27) cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins) from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer. Results: Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008). In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results. Conclusions: In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC.
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4.
  • Bjermo, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 95:5, s. 1003-1012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Replacing SFAs with vegetable PUFAs has cardiometabolic benefits, but the effects on liver fat are unknown. Increased dietary n-6 PUFAs have, however, also been proposed to promote inflammation-a yet unproven theory. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of PUFAs on liver fat, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disorders. DESIGN: We randomly assigned 67 abdominally obese subjects (15% had type 2 diabetes) to a 10-wk isocaloric diet high in vegetable n-6 PUFA (PUFA diet) or SFA mainly from butter (SFA diet), without altering the macronutrient intake. Liver fat was assessed by MRI and magnetic resonance proton (1H) spectroscopy (MRS). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9, a hepatic LDL-receptor regulator), inflammation, and adipose tissue expression of inflammatory and lipogenic genes were determined. RESULTS: A total of 61 subjects completed the study. Body weight modestly increased but was not different between groups. Liver fat was lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet [between-group difference in relative change from baseline; 16% (MRI; P < 0.001), 34% (MRS; P = 0.02)]. PCSK9 (P = 0.001), TNF receptor-2 (P < 0.01), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P = 0.02) concentrations were lower during the PUFA diet, whereas insulin (P = 0.06) tended to be higher during the SFA diet. In compliant subjects (defined as change in serum linoleic acid), insulin, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue gene expression was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with SFA intake, n-6 PUFAs reduce liver fat and modestly improve metabolic status, without weight loss. A high n-6 PUFA intake does not cause any signs of inflammation or oxidative stress. Downregulation of PCSK9 could be a novel mechanism behind the cholesterol-lowering effects of PUFAs.
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5.
  • Claussnitzer, Melina, et al. (författare)
  • Leveraging cross-species transcription factor binding site patterns: from diabetes risk Loci to disease mechanisms.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cell. - : Cell Press. - 1097-4172. ; 156:1-2, s. 343-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have revealed numerous risk loci associated with diverse diseases. However, identification of disease-causing variants within association loci remains a major challenge. Divergence in gene expression due to cis-regulatory variants in noncoding regions is central to disease susceptibility. We show that integrative computational analysis of phylogenetic conservation with a complexity assessment of co-occurring transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) can identify cis-regulatory variants and elucidate their mechanistic role in disease. Analysis of established type 2 diabetes risk loci revealed a striking clustering of distinct homeobox TFBS. We identified the PRRX1 homeobox factor as a repressor of PPARG2 expression in adipose cells and demonstrate its adverse effect on lipid metabolism and systemic insulin sensitivity, dependent on the rs4684847 risk allele that triggers PRRX1 binding. Thus, cross-species conservation analysis at the level of co-occurring TFBS provides a valuable contribution to the translation of genetic association signals to disease-related molecular mechanisms.
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6.
  • Dahlman, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • A unique role of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 among chemokines in adipose tissue of obese subjects
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 90:10, s. 5834-5840
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue may contribute to insulin resistance in obesity. However, the roles of individual inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue are poorly understood. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine which inflammation markers are most overexpressed at the gene level in adipose tissue in human obesity and how this relates to corresponding protein secretion. Design: We examined gene expression profiles in 17 lean and 20 obese subjects. The secretory pattern of relevant corresponding proteins was examined in human sc adipose tissue or isolated fat cells in vitro and in vivo in several obese or lean cohorts. Results: In ranking gene expression, defined pathways associated with obesity and immune and defense responses scored high. Among seven markedly overexpressed chemokines, only monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) was released from adipose tissue and isolated fat cells in vitro. In obesity, the secretion and expression of MCP1 in adipose tissue pieces were more than 6- and 2-fold increased, respectively, but there was no change in circulating MCP1 levels. There was no net release of MCP1, but there was a net release of leptin, in vivo from adipose tissue into the circulation. Conclusions: Obesity is associated with the increased expression of several chemokine genes in adipose tissue. However, only MCP1 is secreted into the extracellular space, where it primarily acts as a local factor, because little or no spillover into the circulation occurs. MCP1 influences the function of adipocytes, is a recruitment factor for macrophages, and may be a crucial link among chemokines between adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.
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7.
  • Flanagan, John N., et al. (författare)
  • Role of follistatin in promoting adipogenesis in women
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 94:8, s. 3003-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Follistatin is a glycoprotein that binds and neutralizes biological activities of TGFbeta superfamily members including activin and myostatin. We previously identified by expression profiling that follistatin levels in white adipose tissue (WAT) were regulated by obesity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to elucidate the role of follistatin in human WAT and obesity. DESIGN: We measured secreted follistatin protein from WAT biopsies and fat cells in vitro. We also quantified follistatin mRNA expression in sc and visceral WAT and in WAT-fractionated cells and related it to obesity status, body region, and cellular origin. We investigated the effects of follistatin on adipocyte differentiation of progenitor cells in vitro. PARTICIPANTS: Women (n = 66) with a wide variation in body mass index were recruited by advertisement and from a clinic for weight-reduction therapy. RESULTS: WAT secreted follistatin in vitro. Follistatin mRNA levels in sc but not visceral WAT were decreased in obesity and restored to nonobese levels after weight reduction. Follistatin mRNA levels were high in the stroma-vascular fraction of WAT and low in adipocytes. Recombinant follistatin treatment promoted adipogenic differentiation of progenitor cells and neutralized the inhibitory action of myostatin on differentiation in vitro. Moreover, activin and myostatin signaling receptors were detected in WAT and adipocytes. CONCLUSION: Follistatin is a new adipokine important for adipogenesis. Down-regulated WAT expression of follistatin in obesity may counteract adiposity but could, by inhibiting adipogenesis, contribute to hypertrophic obesity (large fat cells) and insulin resistance.
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8.
  • Gillberg, Linn, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue transcriptomics and epigenomics in low birthweight men and controls : role of high-fat overfeeding
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 59:4, s. 799-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Individuals who had a low birthweight (LBW) are at an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes when exposed to high-fat overfeeding (HFO). We studied genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) after 5 days of HFO and after a control diet in 40 young men, of whom 16 had LBW. Methods mRNA expression was analysed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays and DNA methylation using Illumina 450K BeadChip arrays. Results We found differential DNA methylation at 53 sites in SAT from LBW vs normal birthweight (NBW) men (false discovery rate < 5%), including sites in the FADS2 and CPLX1 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes. When we used reference-free cell mixture adjustments to potentially adjust for cell composition, 4,323 sites had differential methylation in LBW vs NBW men. However, no differences in SAT gene expression levels were identified between LBW and NBW men. In the combined group of all 40 participants, 3,276 genes (16.5%) were differentially expressed in SAT after HFO (false discovery rate < 5%) and there was no difference between LBW men and controls. The most strongly upregulated genes were ELOVL6, FADS2 and NNAT; in contrast, INSR, IRS2 and the SLC27A2 fatty acid transporter showed decreased expression after HFO. Interestingly, SLC27A2 expression correlated negatively with diabetes- and obesity-related traits in a replication cohort of 142 individuals. DNA methylation at 652 CpG sites (including in CDK5, IGFBP5 and SLC2A4) was altered in SAT after overfeeding in this and in another cohort. Conclusions/interpretation Young men who had a LBW exhibit epigenetic alterations in their adipose tissue that potentially influence insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Short-term overfeeding influences gene transcription and, to some extent, DNA methylation in adipose tissue; there was no major difference in this response between LBW and control participants.
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9.
  • Grauers, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Candidate gene analysis and exome sequencing confirm LBX1 as a susceptibility gene for idiopathic scoliosis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Spine Journal. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology. ; 15:10, s. 2239-2246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity affecting approximately 3% of otherwise healthy children or adolescents. The etiology is still largely unknown but has an important genetic component. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of common genetic variants that are significantly associated with idiopathic scoliosis in Asian and Caucasian populations, rs11190870 close to the LBX1 gene being the most replicated finding. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetics of idiopathic scoliosis in a Scandinavian cohort by performing a candidate gene study of four variants previously shown to be associated with idiopathic scoliosis and exome sequencing of idiopathic scoliosis patients with a severe phenotype to identify possible novel scoliosis risk variants. Study design: This was a case control study. Patient sample: A total of 1,739 patients with idiopathic scoliosis and 1,812 controls were included. Outcome measure: The outcome measure was idiopathic scoliosis. Methods: The variants rs10510181, rs11190870, rs12946942, and rs6570507 were genotyped in 1,739 patients with idiopathic scoliosis and 1,812 controls. Exome sequencing was performed on pooled samples from 100 surgically treated idiopathic scoliosis patients. Novel or rare missense, nonsense, or splice site variants were selected for individual genotyping in the 1,739 cases and 1,812 controls. In addition, the 5′UTR, noncoding exon and promoter regions of LBX1, not covered by exome sequencing, were Sanger sequenced in the 100 pooled samples. Results: Of the four candidate genes, an intergenic variant, rs11190870, downstream of the LBX1 gene, showed a highly significant association to idiopathic scoliosis in 1,739 cases and 1,812 controls (p=7.0×10−18). We identified 20 novel variants by exome sequencing after filtration and an initial genotyping validation. However, we could not verify any association to idiopathic scoliosis in the large cohort of 1,739 cases and 1,812 controls. We did not find any variants in the 5′UTR, noncoding exon and promoter regions of LBX1. Conclusions: Here, we confirm LBX1 as a susceptibility gene for idiopathic scoliosis in a Scandinavian population and report that we are unable to find evidence of other genes of similar or stronger effect.
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10.
  • Herdenberg, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • LRIG proteins regulate lipid metabolism via BMP signaling and affect the risk of type 2 diabetes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - : NATURE RESEARCH. - 2399-3642. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins have been implicated as regulators of growth factor signaling; however, the possible redundancy among mammalian LRIG1, LRIG2, and LRIG3 has hindered detailed elucidation of their physiological functions. Here, we show that Lrig-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are deficient in adipogenesis and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. In contrast, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling appeared unaltered in Lrig-null cells. The BMP signaling defect was rescued by ectopic expression of LRIG1 or LRIG3 but not by expression of LRIG2. Caenorhabditis elegans with mutant LRIG/sma-10 variants also exhibited a lipid storage defect. Human LRIG1 variants were strongly associated with increased body mass index (BMI) yet protected against type 2 diabetes; these effects were likely mediated by altered adipocyte morphology. These results demonstrate that LRIG proteins function as evolutionarily conserved regulators of lipid metabolism and BMP signaling and have implications for human disease. Herdenberg et al. show that adipogenesis and BMP signaling are altered in mouse cells deficient in LRIG (Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains) proteins. They find that mutant LRIG/sma-10 variant worms exhibit lipid storage defects and that human LRIG1 variants are associated with higher body mass index, yet protect against type 2 diabetes. This study suggests an evolutionarily conserved role of LRIG proteins for lipid metabolism and BMP signaling.
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