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Sökning: WFRF:(Dahm C. C.)

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  • Cooper, A. J., et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 66:10, s. 1082-1092
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct (EPIC-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16 154 participants and 12 403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340 234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than twofold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76-1.04) for fruit and 0.94 (0.84-1.05) for vegetables. Among FV subtypes, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77-0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87-1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV subtypes, only green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake (relative risk: 0.84 (0.74-0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Subtypes of vegetables, such as root vegetables or GLVs may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect.
  • Couto, E, et al. (författare)
  • Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 104:9, s. 1493-1499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. METHODS: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study including 142 605 men and 335 873. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was examined using a score (range: 0-9) considering the combined intake of fruits and nuts, vegetables, legumes, cereals, lipids, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. Association with cancer incidence was assessed through Cox regression modelling, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: In all, 9669 incident cancers in men and 21 062 in women were identified. A lower overall cancer risk was found among individuals with greater adherence to Mediterranean diet (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98) for a two-point increment of the Mediterranean diet score. The apparent inverse association was stronger for smoking-related cancers than for cancers not known to be related to tobacco (P (heterogeneity) = 0.008). In all, 4.7% of cancers among men and 2.4% in women would be avoided in this population if study subjects had a greater adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern. CONCLUSION: Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern could reduce overall cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer (2011) 104, 1493-1499. doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.106 www.bjcancer.com Published online 5 April 2011 (C) 2011 Cancer Research UK
  • Bendinelli, B., et al. (författare)
  • Association between dietary meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes : the EPIC-InterAct study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Springer. - 0012-186X. ; 56:1, s. 47-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: A diet rich in meat has been reported to contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the association between meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-InterAct study, a large prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods: During 11.7 years of follow-up, 12,403 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were identified among 340,234 adults from eight European countries. A centre-stratified random subsample of 16,835 individuals was selected in order to perform a case-cohort design. Prentice-weighted Cox regression analyses were used to estimate HR and 95% CI for incident diabetes according to meat consumption.Results: Overall, multivariate analyses showed significant positive associations with incident type 2 diabetes for increasing consumption of total meat (50 g increments: HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.05, 1.12), red meat (HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.03, 1.13) and processed meat (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.05, 1.19), and a borderline positive association with meat iron intake. Effect modifications by sex and class of BMI were observed. In men, the results of the overall analyses were confirmed. In women, the association with total and red meat persisted, although attenuated, while an association with poultry consumption also emerged (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.07, 1.34). These associations were not evident among obese participants.Conclusions/interpretation: This prospective study confirms a positive association between high consumption of total and red meat and incident type 2 diabetes in a large cohort of European adults.
  • Freisling, Heinz, et al. (författare)
  • Region-Specific Nutrient Intake Patterns Exhibit a Geographical Gradient within and between European Countries
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nutrition. - American Society for Nutrition. - 1541-6100. ; 140:7, s. 1280-1286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Until recently, the study of nutrient patterns was hampered at an international level by a lack of standardization of both dietary methods and nutrient databases. We aimed to describe the diversity of nutrient patterns in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study at population level as a starting point for future nutrient pattern analyses and their associations with chronic diseases in multi-center studies. In this cross-sectional study, 36,034 persons aged 35-74 y were administered a single, standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intake of 25 nutrients (excluding intake from dietary supplements) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database. We used a graphic presentation of mean nutrient intakes by region and sex relative to the overall EPIC means to contrast patterns within and between 10 European countries. In Mediterranean regions, including Greece, Italy, and the southern centers of Spain, the nutrient pattern was dominated by relatively high intakes of vitamin E and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas intakes of retinol and vitamin D were relatively low. In contrast, in Nordic countries, including Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, reported intake of these same nutrients resulted in almost the opposite pattern. Population groups in Germany, The Netherlands, and the UK shared a fatty acid pattern of relatively high intakes of PUFA and SFA and relatively low intakes of MUFA, in combination with a relatively high intake of sugar. We confirmed large variability in nutrient intakes across the EPIC study populations and identified 3 main region-specific patterns with a geographical gradient within and between European countries. J. Nutr. 140: 1280-1286, 2010.
  • Gonze, X., et al. (författare)
  • Recent developments in the ABINIT software package
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Computer Physics Communications. - Elsevier. - 0010-4655. ; 205, s. 106-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABINIT is a package whose main program allows one to find the total energy, charge density, electronic structure and many other properties of systems made of electrons and nuclei, (molecules and periodic solids) within Density Functional Theory (DFT), Many-Body Perturbation Theory (GW approximation and Bethe-Salpeter equation) and Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT). ABINIT also allows to optimize the geometry according to the DFT forces and stresses, to perform molecular dynamics simulations using these forces, and to generate dynamical matrices, Born effective charges and dielectric tensors. The present paper aims to describe the new capabilities of ABINIT that have been developed since 2009. It covers both physical and technical developments inside the ABINIT code, as well as developments provided within the ABINIT package. The developments are described with relevant references, input variables, tests and tutorials. Program summary: . Program title: ABINIT. . Catalogue identifier: AEEU_v2_0. . Program summary URL: . http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEU_v2_0.html . . Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland. . Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3. . No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4845789. . No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 71340403. . Distribution format: tar.gz. . Programming language: Fortran2003, PERL scripts, Python scripts. . Classification: 7.3, 7.8. . External routines: (all optional) BigDFT [2], ETSF_IO [3], libxc [4], NetCDF [5], MPI [6], Wannier90 [7], FFTW [8]. . Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEU_v1_0. . Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2582. . Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. The abinit-7.10.5 version is now the up to date stable version of ABINIT. . Nature of problem: . This package has the purpose of computing accurately material and nanostructure properties: electronic structure, bond lengths, bond angles, primitive cell size, cohesive energy, dielectric properties, vibrational properties, elastic properties, optical properties, magnetic properties, non-linear couplings, electronic and vibrational life-times, and others. . Solution method: . Software application based on Density Functional Theory, Many-Body Perturbation Theory and Dynamical Mean Field Theory, pseudopotentials, with plane waves or wavelets as basis functions. . Reasons for new version: . Since 2009, the abinit-5.7.4 version of the code has considerably evolved and is not yet up to date. The abinit- 7.10.5 version contains new physical and technical features that allow electronic structure calculations impossible to carry out in the previous versions. . Summary of revisions: . •new physical features: quantum effects for the nuclei treated by the Path-integral Molecular Dynamics; finding transition states using image dynamics (NEB or string methods); two component DFT for electron-positron annihilation; linear response in a Projector Augmented-Wave approach -PAW-, electron-phonon interactions and temperature dependence of the gap; Bethe Salpeter Equation -BSE-; Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT).•new technical features: development of a PAW approach for a wavelet basis; parallelisation of the code on more than 10,000 processors; new build system.•new features in the ABINIT package: tests; test farm; new tutorials; new pseudopotentials and PAW atomic data tables; GUI and postprocessing tools like the AbiPy and APPA libraries. . Running time: . It is difficult to answer to the question as the use of ABINIT is very large. On one hand, ABINIT can run on 10,000 processors for hours to perform quantum molecular dynamics on large systems. On the other hand, tutorials for students can be performed on a laptop within a few minutes. . References: . 1 http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.txt 2 http://bigdft.org 3 http://www.etsf.eu/fileformats 4 http://www.tddft.org/programs/octopus/wiki/index.php/Libxc 5 http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/netcdf 6 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Message_Passing_Interface 7 http://www.wannier.org 8M. Frigo and S.G. Johnson, Proceedings of the IEEE, 93, 216-231 (2005). . .
  • Schmidt, J. A., et al. (författare)
  • Baseline patterns of adipose tissue fatty acids and long-term risk of breast cancer : a case-cohort study in the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0954-3007 .- 1476-5640. ; 68:10, s. 1088-1094
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The evidence regarding fatty acids and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. Adipose tissue fatty acids can be used as biomarkers of fatty acid intake and of endogenous fatty acid exposure. Fatty acids in adipose tissue are correlated. owing to common dietary sources and shared metabolic pathways, which group fatty acids into naturally occurring patterns. We aimed to prospectively investigate associations between adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and long-term risk of total breast cancer and breast cancer subtypes characterised by oestrogen and progesterone receptor status (ER and PR). SUBJECTS/METHODS: This case-cohort study was based on data from the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health. At baseline, a fat biopsy and information on lifestyle and reproductive factors were collected. From the 31 original fatty acids measured, patterns of fatty acids were identified using the treelet transform. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 474 breast cancer cases were identified. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of risk of total breast cancer and of subtypes according to quintiles of factor score were determined by weighted Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, factor scores for the seven patterns identified by the treelet transform were not associated with risk of total breast cancer, nor with risk of ER+, ER, PR+ or PR tumours. CONCLUSIONS: No clear associations between the patterns of fatty acids at baseline and long-term risk of total breast cancer or ER+, ER, PR+ or PR tumours were observed.
  • Ward, Heather A., et al. (författare)
  • Haem iron intake and risk of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0954-3007. ; 8:73, s. 1122-1132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that haem iron, which is found predominantly in red meat and increases endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, may be positively associated with lung cancer. The objective was to examine the relationship between haem iron intake and lung cancer risk using detailed smoking history data and serum cotinine to control for potential confounding. Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 416,746 individuals from 10 countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident lung cancer (n = 3731) risk relative to haem iron, non-haem iron, and total dietary iron intake. A corresponding analysis was conducted among a nested subset of 800 lung cancer cases and 1489 matched controls for whom serum cotinine was available. Results: Haem iron was associated with lung cancer risk, including after adjustment for details of smoking history (time since quitting, number of cigarettes per day): as a continuous variable (HR per 0.3 mg/1000 kcal 1.03, 95% CI 1.00–1.07), and in the highest versus lowest quintile (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02–1.32; trend across quintiles: P = 0.035). In contrast, non-haem iron intake was related inversely with lung cancer risk; however, this association attenuated after adjustment for smoking history. Additional adjustment for serum cotinine did not considerably alter the associations detected in the nested case–control subset. Conclusions: Greater haem iron intake may be modestly associated with lung cancer risk.
  • Brucker, S. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Selecting living donors for uterus transplantation: lessons learned from two transplantations resulting in menstrual functionality and another attempt, aborted after organ retrieval
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. - 0932-0067. ; 297:3, s. 675-684
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To contribute to establishing donor selection criteria based on our experience with two successful living-donor human uterus transplantations (UTx) and an aborted attempt. This interventional study included three patients with uterine agenesis, aged 23, 34, and 23 years, scheduled for UTx, and their uterus-donating mothers, aged 46, 61, and 46 years, respectively. Interventions included preoperative investigations, donor surgery, back-table preparation, and recipient surgery. Preoperative imaging, surgical data, histopathology, menstrual pattern, and uterine blood flow were the main outcome measures. In the first case (46-year-old mother/23-year-old daughter), donor/recipient surgery took 12.12/5.95 h. Regular spontaneous menstruations started 6-week post-transplantation, continuing at 24-28-day intervals throughout the 6-month observation period. Repeated follow-up cervical biopsies showed no signs of rejection. In the second case (61-year-old donor), surgery lasted 13.10 h; attempts to flush the retrieved uterus failed due to extreme resistance of the left uterine artery (UA) and inability to perfuse the right UA. Transplantation was aborted to avoid graft vessel thrombosis or insufficient blood flow during potential pregnancy. Histopathology revealed intimal fibrosis and initial sclerosis (right UA), extensive intimal fibrosis (parametric arterial segments), and subtotal arterial stenosis (myometrial vascular network). In the third case (46-year-old mother/23-year-old daughter), donor/recipient surgery took 9.05/4.52 h. Menstruations started 6-week post-transplantation. Repeated cervical biopsies showed no signs of rejection during the initial 12-week follow-up period. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of potential living uterus donors is essential. This may include selective contrast-enhanced UA angiograms and limitation of donor age, at least in donors with risk factors for atherosclerosis.
  • Campa, Daniele, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variability of the fatty acid synthase pathway is not associated with prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - Elsevier. - 0959-8049. ; 47:3, s. 420-427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A western lifestyle, characterised by low rates of energy expenditure and a high-energy diet rich in animal protein, saturated fats and refined carbohydrates, is associated with high incidence of prostate cancer in men. A high-energy nutritional status results in insulin/IGF signalling in cells, which in turn stimulates synthesis of fatty acids. We investigated whether the genetic variability of the genes belonging to the fatty acid synthesis pathway is related to prostate cancer risk in 815 prostate cancer cases and 1266 controls from the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC). Using a tagging approach and selecting 252 SNPs in 22 genes, we covered all the common genetic variation of this pathway. None of the SNPs reached statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Common SNPs in the fatty acid synthase pathway are not major contributors to prostate cancer risk.
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