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Sökning: WFRF:(Dal Cin Paola)

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1.
  • Panagopoulos, Ioannis, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular genetic characterization of the EWS/CHN and RBP56/CHN fusion genes in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1045-2257. ; 35:4, s. 340-352
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a soft-tissue neoplasm cytogenetically characterized by the translocations t(9;22)(q22;q11-12) or t(9;17)(q22;q11), generating EWS/CHN or RBP56/CHN fusion genes, respectively. In the present study, 18 EMCs were studied both cytogenetically and at the molecular level. Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 16 samples: 13 with involvement of 9q22 and 22q11-12, and three with rearrangements of 9q22 and 17q11. Fifteen cases had an EWS/CHN fusion transcript and three had an RBP56/CHN transcript. The most frequent EWS/CHN transcript (type 1; 10 tumors), involved fusion of EWS exon 12 with CHN exon 3, and the second most common (type 5; two cases) was fusion of EWS exon 13 with CHN exon 3. In all tumors with RBP56/CHN fusion, exon 6 of RBP56 was fused to exon 3 of CHN. By genomic XL PCR and sequence analyses, the breakpoints from 14 cases were mapped in the EWS, RBP56, and CHN genes. In CHN, 12 breakpoints were found in intron 2 and only two in intron 1. In EWS, the breaks occurred in introns 7 (one break), 12 (eight breaks), and 13 (one break), and in RBP56 in intron 6. Repetitive elements such as Alu and LINE sequences seem to have limited, if any, importance in the genesis of EWS/CHN and RBP56/CHN chimeras. Furthermore, there were no chi, chi-like, topoisomerase II, or translin consensus sequences in the introns harboring the translocation breakpoints, nor could the number of topo I sites in EWS, RBP56, and CHN introns explain the uneven distribution of the breakpoints among EWS or CHN introns. Additional genetic events, such as nucleotide insertions, homologies at the junction, deletions, duplications, and inversions, were found to accompany the translocations, indicating that the chromosomal translocations do not require sequence-specific recombinases or extensive homology between the recombined sequences. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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2.
  • Doyle, Leona A, et al. (författare)
  • MUC4 Is a Highly Sensitive and Specific Marker for Low-grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Surgical Pathology. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1532-0979. ; 35, s. 733-741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive fibroblastic neoplasm that is characterized by alternating collagenous and myxoid areas, deceptively bland spindle cell morphology, a whorling architecture, and a t(7;16) translocation involving FUS and CREB3L2. Owing to variable morphology and a lack of discriminatory markers, LGFMS can be difficult to distinguish from benign mesenchymal tumors and other low-grade sarcomas. Gene expression profiling has identified differential upregulation of the mucin 4 (MUC4) gene in LGFMS compared with histologically similar tumors. MUC4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that functions in cell growth signaling pathways; aberrant MUC4 expression has been reported in various carcinomas. We investigated MUC4 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in LGFMS and in other soft tissue tumors to determine the potential diagnostic use of this novel marker. Whole-tissue sections of 309 tumors were evaluated: 49 LGFMSs (all with FUS gene rearrangement confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization), 40 soft tissue perineuriomas, 40 myxofibrosarcomas, 20 cellular myxomas, 20 solitary fibrous tumors, 20 low-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 20 cases of desmoid fibromatosis, 20 neurofibromas, 20 schwannomas, 20 monophasic synovial sarcomas, 20 cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 10 myxoid liposarcomas, and 10 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas. The LGFMS cases included 7 with marked hypercellularity, 4 with prominent hemangiopericytoma-like vessels, 3 with giant collagen rosettes, 3 with epithelioid morphology, 2 with focal nuclear pleomorphism, and 2 with areas of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. All 49 LGFMS cases (100%) showed cytoplasmic staining for MUC4, which was usually diffuse and intense. All the other tumor types were negative for MUC4, apart from 6 (30%) monophasic synovial sarcomas. In conclusion, MUC4 is a highly sensitive and quite specific immunohistochemical marker for LGFMS, and can be helpful to distinguish this tumor type from histologic mimics.
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3.
  • Doyle, Leona A, et al. (författare)
  • MUC4 Is a Sensitive and Extremely Useful Marker for Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma: Association With FUS Gene Rearrangement.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Surgical Pathology. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1532-0979. ; 36:10, s. 1444-1451
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare aggressive fibroblastic neoplasm composed of cords of epithelioid cells embedded in a dense collagenous stroma. The reported immunophenotype of SEF is nonspecific. Some SEF cases show morphologic and molecular overlap with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), suggesting a relationship between these tumor types. MUC4 has recently been identified as a sensitive and specific marker for LGFMS; MUC4 expression was also observed in 2 tumors with hybrid features of SEF and LGFMS. We investigated MUC4 expression in SEF and other epithelioid soft tissue tumors to determine (1) the potential diagnostic utility of MUC4 for SEF and (2) the association between MUC4 expression and FUS rearrangement in SEF. Whole sections of 180 tumors were evaluated: 41 cases of SEF (including 29 "pure" SEF and 12 hybrid LGFMS-SEF), 20 epithelioid sarcomas, 11 clear cell sarcomas, 11 metastatic melanomas, 10 perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, 10 alveolar soft part sarcomas, 10 epithelioid angiosarcomas, 10 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, 10 epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 10 myoepithelial carcinomas, 17 ossifying fibromyxoid tumors, 10 leiomyosarcomas, and 10 biphasic synovial sarcomas. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed after antigen retrieval using a mouse anti-MUC4 monoclonal antibody. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on 33 SEF cases using FUS break-apart probes. A subset of cases was also evaluated for EWSR1 and CREB3L2/L1 rearrangements by FISH. Strong diffuse cytoplasmic staining for MUC4 was observed in 32 of 41 (78%) cases of SEF, including all 12 hybrid tumors. FUS rearrangement was detected in 8 of 21 (38%) MUC4-positive cases of SEF with successful FISH studies. The prevalence of FUS rearrangement was similar in hybrid LGFMS-SEF (2 of 6; 33%) and SEF without an LGFMS component (6 of 15; 40%). FUS rearrangement was not detected in any cases of MUC4-negative SEF. Two hybrid tumors had both EWSR1 and CREB3L1 rearrangements. MUC4 expression was also seen in 9 of 10 (90%) biphasic synovial sarcomas, predominantly in the glandular component. All other tumor types were negative for MUC4, apart from focal reactivity in 5 ossifying fibromyxoid tumors, 2 epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and 1 myoepithelial carcinoma. MUC4 is a sensitive and relatively specific marker for SEF among epithelioid soft tissue tumors. MUC4 expression occurs more frequently than FUS rearrangement in SEF. The finding of EWSR1 and CREB3L1 rearrangements in 2 cases of hybrid LGFMS-SEF suggests that SEFs are genetically heterogenous. MUC4-positive SEFs with FUS rearrangement are likely closely related to LGFMS. MUC4-positive SEFs that lack FUS rearrangement may be related to LGFMS but could have alternate fusion partners, including EWSR1. SEF without MUC4 expression may represent a distinct group of tumors. MUC4 expression correlates with glandular epithelial differentiation in biphasic synovial sarcoma and is very limited in other epithelioid soft tissue tumors.
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4.
  • Gisselsson Nord, David, et al. (författare)
  • Differentially amplified chromosome 12 sequences in low- and high-grade osteosarcoma.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1045-2257. ; 33:2, s. 133-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most osteosarcomas are highly aggressive malignancies characterized by a complex pattern of chromosome abnormalities. However, a subgroup of low-grade, parosteal tumors exhibits a relatively simple aberration pattern dominated by ring chromosomes carrying amplified material from chromosome 12. To assess whether sequences from this chromosome were differentially amplified in low- and high-grade osteosarcomas, copy numbers of the CCND2, ETV6, KRAS2, and D12S85 regions in 12p and the MDM2 region in 12q were evaluated by interphase or metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 24 osteosarcomas. Amplification of MDM2 was detected in all five low-grade and four high-grade osteosarcomas, all of which showed ring chromosomes. An overrepresentation of 12p sequences was found in 1/5 low-grade and in 9/19 high-grade tumors. Multicolor single-copy FISH analysis of metaphase cells from six high-grade tumors showed that extra 12p material either occurred together with MDM2 in ring chromosomes or was scattered over the genome as a result of complex structural rearrangements. Most tumors (8/10) not containing amplification of the assessed chromosome 12 loci exhibited a nondiploid pattern at evaluation with probes for centromeric alpha satellite sequences. These findings indicate that gain of sequences from the short arm of chromosome 12 could be a possible genetic pathway in the development of aggressive osteosarcoma.
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5.
  • Gisselsson Nord, David, et al. (författare)
  • Hibernomas are characterized by homozygous deletions in the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I region. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals complex rearrangements not detected by conventional cytogenetics
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Pathology. - American Society for Investigative Pathology. - 1525-2191. ; 155:1, s. 61-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hibernomas are benign tumors of brown fat, frequently characterized by aberrations of chromosome band 11q13. In this study, the chromosome 11 changes in five hibernomas were analyzed in detail by metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. In all cases, complex rearrangements leading to loss of chromosome 11 material were found. Deletions were present not only in those chromosomes that were shown to be rearranged by G-banding, but in four cases also in the ostensibly normal homologues, resulting in homozygous loss of several loci. Among these, the gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) was most frequently deleted. In addition to the MEN1 deletions, heterozygous loss of a second region, approximately 3 Mb distal to MEN1, was found in all five cases, adding to previous evidence for a second tumor suppressor locus in 11q13.
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6.
  • Gisselsson Nord, David, et al. (författare)
  • PLAG1 alterations in lipoblastoma: involvement in varied mesenchymal cell types and evidence for alternative oncogenic mechanisms
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Pathology. - American Society for Investigative Pathology. - 1525-2191. ; 159:3, s. 955-962
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lipoblastomas are rare soft tissue tumors that occur primarily in young children. They typically contain variably differentiated adipocytes, primitive mesenchymal cells, myxoid matrix, and fibrous trabeculae. Abnormalities in chromosome 8, leading to rearrangements of the PLAG1 gene, were demonstrated recently in four lipoblastomas. In the present report, we determine the frequency of PLAG1 alterations in 16 lipoblastomas from children aged 13 years or younger, and we also evaluate the stages of lipoblastoma differentiation at which PLAG1 genomic alterations are found. Eleven lipoblastomas (69%), including those with either classic or lipoma-like histology, had rearrangements of the 8q12 PLAG1 region. Another three lipoblastomas had polysomy for chromosome 8 in the absence of PLAG1 rearrangement. Only two cases (13%) lacked a chromosome 8 abnormality. Notably, the lipoblastomas with chromosome 8 polysomy had up to five copies of chromosome 8 as an isolated cytogenetic finding in an otherwise diploid cell. We also demonstrate that PLAG1 alterations are found in a spectrum of mesenchymal cell types in lipoblastomas, including lipoblasts, mature adipocytes, primitive mesenchymal cells, and fibroblast-like cells. This finding is consistent with neoplastic origin in a primitive mesenchymal precursor and with variable differentiation to a mature adipocyte end-point. Hence, our studies provide biological validation for the clinical observation that lipoblastomas can evolve into mature, lipoma-like, lesions. They also suggest that PLAG1 dosage alterations caused by polysomy 8 might represent an alternative oncogenic mechanism in lipoblastoma.
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7.
  • Gisselsson Nord, David, et al. (författare)
  • Telomere dysfunction triggers extensive DNA fragmentation and evolution of complex chromosome abnormalities in human malignant tumors
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 98:22, s. 12683-12688
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although mechanisms for chromosomal instability in tumors have been described in animal and in vitro models, little is known about these processes in man. To explore cytogenetic evolution in human tumors, chromosomal breakpoint profiles were constructed for 102 pancreatic carcinomas and 140 osteosarcomas, two tumor types characterized by extensive genomic instability. Cases with few chromosomal alterations showed a preferential clustering of breakpoints to the terminal bands, whereas tumors with many changes showed primarily interstitial and centromeric breakpoints. The terminal breakpoint frequency was negatively correlated to telomeric TTAGGG repeat length, and fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomeric TTAGGG probes consistently indicated shortened telomeres and >10% of chromosome ends lacking telomeric signals. Because telomeric dysfunction may lead to formation of unstable ring and dicentric chromosomes, mitotic figures were also evaluated. Anaphase bridges were found in all cases, and fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated extensive structural rearrangements of chromosomes, with terminal transferase detection showing fragmented DNA in 5-20% of interphase cells. Less than 2% of cells showed evidence of necrosis or apoptosis, and telomerase was expressed in the majority of cases. Telomeric dysfunction may thus trigger chromosomal fragmentation through persistent bridge-breakage events in pancreatic carcinomas and osteosarcomas, leading to a continuous reorganization of the tumor genome. Telomerase expression is not sufficient for completely stabilizing the chromosome complement but may be crucial for preventing complete genomic deterioration and maintaining cellular survival.
8.
  • Gisselsson Nord, David, et al. (författare)
  • The structure and dynamics of ring chromosomes in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - Springer. - 1432-1203. ; 104:4, s. 315-325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acquired ring chromosomes have been found in most types of human neoplasia, with a frequency approaching 10% in malignant mesenchymal tumours. In this study, the composition and dynamics of ring chromosomes were analysed in eight cases of acute myelogenous leukaemia, 17 solid tumours, and five cases with constitutional rings. Chromosomal banding and fluorescence in situ hybridisation were performed to determine the content and the structural heterogeneity of the rings. Telomeric repeats were detected using peptide nucleic acid probes or primed in situ labelling, whereas centromeric activity was evaluated by detection of kinetochore proteins. Mitotic instability was assessed by the frequency of anaphase bridges. The results suggest that human ring chromosomes can be structurally and functionally divided into two categories. In the first of these, size variation is minimal and rearrangement at cell division is uncommon. The majority of such rings contain subtelomeric sequences. Constitutional ring chromosomes and most rings in leukaemias belong to this group, whereas only a few mesenchymal tumours exhibit rings of this type. The second category consists of rings with amplified sequences, primarily from chromosome 12, characteristically occurring in atypical lipomatous tumours and other subtypes of low or borderline malignant mesenchymal neoplasms. Variation in size and number is extensive, and breakage-fusion-bridge events occur at a high frequency. Abnormalities in pericentromeric sequences are common and, in some cases, kinetochores assemble in the absence of alphoid DNA. We conclude that it is not only the ring structure per se or the neoplastic nature of the host cell that determines ring instability, but probably also the functional role of the genes carried in the ring.
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9.
  • Mertens, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostically important chromosomal aberrations in soft tissue sarcomas: a report of the Chromosomes and Morphology (CHAMP) Study Group.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 62:14, s. 3980-3984
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cytogenetic analysis has not only provided important information on the pathogenesis of soft tissue tumors but, by disclosing distinct chromosomal rearrangements in different histopathological entities, has also come to serve as a valuable diagnostic tool. Little is known as yet about the potential prognostic impact of cytogenetic features detected in these tumors. A total of 239 benign and 221 malignant soft tissue tumors with clonal chromosome aberrations were subdivided according to general karyotypic features, such as degree of complexity and ploidy level, and rearrangements of specific chromosomal regions. The cytogenetic variables were analyzed regarding clinical outcome, using time to metastasis as the end point. Selected variables were then compared with established clinicopathological predictors of metastasis development. When the entire material was considered, 167 of 268 investigated cytogenetic variables were associated with clinical outcome. Focusing on the subset of 151 patients with high-grade sarcoma, 17 variables were identified that, besides grade and size, were associated with increased risk of metastasis development. A final Cox regression analysis identified five independent cytogenetic predictors of adverse outcome; breakpoints in chromosome regions 1p1, 1q4, 14q1, and 17q2, and gain of regions 6p1/p2. An increasing effect on metastatic risk was seen with increasing involvement of the selected cytogenetic variables, even when different histopathological types were studied separately. We conclude that cytogenetic data provide independent prognostic information in soft tissue sarcomas. Furthermore, our results point to specific areas of the genome harboring genes that may influence the metastatic potential of sarcoma cells.
10.
  • Qian, Xiaohua, et al. (författare)
  • Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma a series of five cytologic cases with literature review and emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diagnostic Cytopathology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 8755-1039. ; 40, s. 86-93
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is an uncommon and mostly indolent soft tissue neoplasm, which usually occurs in the subcutaneous tissue of the extremities in children and young adults. Although the histologic features of AFH are well established, reports of its cytomorphology are very limited. This report characterizes the cytomorphologic features of five cases of AFH, with correlation to clinical, histology, and cytogenetic findings. Smears of fine needle aspiration (FNA; four cases) and intraoperative scrape (one case) were reviewed from five patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of AFH. A review of six previously reported AFH cases with cytomorphology was also performed. The tumor presented as a cystic, deep dermal mass in three pediatric cases and as a solid, deeply seated mass in two adults. The cytomorphologic features are mostly nondistinctive and include cellular smears with ovoid to spindled histiocytoid cells that may be isolated or in clusters. Some of these cells are atypical and others contain hemosiderin. Large cellular clusters with a capillary structure and a whorled arrangement of tumor cells can be appreciated in some cases. There is always a bloody background, but a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate is uncommon. The presences of EWSR1 rearrangement in one case and three copies of FUS gene in another case were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Diagnosing AFH by FNA cytology alone can be challenging because of its rarity and usually nonspecific cytologic findings. Clinical correlation and ancillary studies are essential to reach a specific diagnosis of AFH in small needle biopsies. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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