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Sökning: WFRF:(Dal Lars A.)

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1.
  • Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group, EBCTCG, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 366:9503, s. 2087-2106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In early breast cancer, variations in local treatment that substantially affect the risk of locoregional recurrence could also affect long-term breast cancer mortality. To examine this relationship, collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken, based on individual patient data, of the relevant randomised trials that began by 1995. METHODS: Information was available on 42,000 women in 78 randomised treatment comparisons (radiotherapy vs no radiotherapy, 23,500; more vs less surgery, 9300; more surgery vs radiotherapy, 9300). 24 types of local treatment comparison were identified. To help relate the effect on local (ie, locoregional) recurrence to that on breast cancer mortality, these were grouped according to whether or not the 5-year local recurrence risk exceeded 10% (<10%, 17,000 women; >10%, 25,000 women). FINDINGS: About three-quarters of the eventual local recurrence risk occurred during the first 5 years. In the comparisons that involved little (<10%) difference in 5-year local recurrence risk there was little difference in 15-year breast cancer mortality. Among the 25,000 women in the comparisons that involved substantial (>10%) differences, however, 5-year local recurrence risks were 7% active versus 26% control (absolute reduction 19%), and 15-year breast cancer mortality risks were 44.6% versus 49.5% (absolute reduction 5.0%, SE 0.8, 2p<0.00001). These 25,000 women included 7300 with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in trials of radiotherapy (generally just to the conserved breast), with 5-year local recurrence risks (mainly in the conserved breast, as most had axillary clearance and node-negative disease) 7% versus 26% (reduction 19%), and 15-year breast cancer mortality risks 30.5% versus 35.9% (reduction 5.4%, SE 1.7, 2p=0.0002; overall mortality reduction 5.3%, SE 1.8, 2p=0.005). They also included 8500 with mastectomy, axillary clearance, and node-positive disease in trials of radiotherapy (generally to the chest wall and regional lymph nodes), with similar absolute gains from radiotherapy; 5-year local recurrence risks (mainly at these sites) 6% versus 23% (reduction 17%), and 15-year breast cancer mortality risks 54.7% versus 60.1% (reduction 5.4%, SE 1.3, 2p=0.0002; overall mortality reduction 4.4%, SE 1.2, 2p=0.0009). Radiotherapy produced similar proportional reductions in local recurrence in all women (irrespective of age or tumour characteristics) and in all major trials of radiotherapy versus not (recent or older; with or without systemic therapy), so large absolute reductions in local recurrence were seen only if the control risk was large. To help assess the life-threatening side-effects of radiotherapy, the trials of radiotherapy versus not were combined with those of radiotherapy versus more surgery. There was, at least with some of the older radiotherapy regimens, a significant excess incidence of contralateral breast cancer (rate ratio 1.18, SE 0.06, 2p=0.002) and a significant excess of non-breast-cancer mortality in irradiated women (rate ratio 1.12, SE 0.04, 2p=0.001). Both were slight during the first 5 years, but continued after year 15. The excess mortality was mainly from heart disease (rate ratio 1.27, SE 0.07, 2p=0.0001) and lung cancer (rate ratio 1.78, SE 0.22, 2p=0.0004). INTERPRETATION: In these trials, avoidance of a local recurrence in the conserved breast after BCS and avoidance of a local recurrence elsewhere (eg, the chest wall or regional nodes) after mastectomy were of comparable relevance to 15-year breast cancer mortality. Differences in local treatment that substantially affect local recurrence rates would, in the hypothetical absence of any other causes of death, avoid about one breast cancer death over the next 15 years for every four local recurrences avoided, and should reduce 15-year overall mortality.
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2.
  • Lejaeghere, Kurt, et al. (författare)
  • Reproducibility in density functional theory calculations of solids.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 351:6280, s. 1415-1422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The widespread popularity of density functional theory has given rise to an extensive range of dedicated codes for predicting molecular and crystalline properties. However, each code implements the formalism in a different way, raising questions about the reproducibility of such predictions. We report the results of a community-wide effort that compared 15 solid-state codes, using 40 different potentials or basis set types, to assess the quality of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof equations of state for 71 elemental crystals. We conclude that predictions from recent codes and pseudopotentials agree very well, with pairwise differences that are comparable to those between different high-precision experiments. Older methods, however, have less precise agreement. Our benchmark provides a framework for users and developers to document the precision of new applications and methodological improvements.
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3.
  • Athron, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • A global fit of the MSSM with GAMBIT
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044. ; 77:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study the seven-dimensional Minimal Super-symmetric Standard Model (MSSM7) with the new GAMBIT software framework, with all parameters defined at the weak scale. Our analysis significantly extends previous weak-scale, phenomenological MSSM fits, by adding more and newer experimental analyses, improving the accuracy and detail of theoretical predictions, including dominant uncertainties from the Standard Model, the Galactic dark matter halo and the quark content of the nucleon, and employing novel and highly-efficient statistical sampling methods to scan the parameter space. We find regions of the MSSM7 that exhibit co-annihilation of neutralinos with charginos, stops and sbottoms, as well as models that undergo resonant annihilation via both light and heavy Higgs funnels. We find high-likelihood models with light charginos, stops and sbottoms that have the potential to be within the future reach of the LHC. Large parts of our preferred parameter regions will also be accessible to the next generation of direct and indirect dark matter searches, making prospects for discovery in the near future rather good.
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4.
  • Athron, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • GAMBIT : the global and modular beyond-the-standard-model inference tool
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044. ; 77:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe the open-source global fitting package GAMBIT: the Global And Modular Beyond-the-Standard-Model Inference Tool. GAMBIT combines extensive calculations of observables and likelihoods in particle and astroparticle physics with a hierarchical model database, advanced tools for automatically building analyses of essentially any model, a flexible and powerful system for interfacing to external codes, a suite of different statistical methods and parameter scanning algorithms, and a host of other utilities designed to make scans faster, safer and more easily-extendible than in the past. Here we give a detailed description of the framework, its design and motivation, and the current models and other specific components presently implemented in GAMBIT. Accompanying papers deal with individual modules and present flrst GAMBIT results. GAMBIT can be downloaded from gambit.hepforge.org.
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5.
  • Athron, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Global fits of GUT-scale SUSY models with GAMBIT
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044. ; 77:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the most comprehensive global fits to date of three supersymmetric models motivated by grand unification: the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM), and its Non-Universal Higgs Mass generalisations NUHM1 and NUHM2. We include likelihoods from a number of direct and indirect dark matter searches, a large collection of electroweak precision and flavour observables, direct searches for supersymmetry at LEP and Runs I and II of the LHC, and constraints from Higgs observables. Our analysis improves on existing results not only in terms of the number of included observables, but also in the level of detail with which we treat them, our sampling techniques for scanning the parameter space, and our treatment of nuisance parameters. We show that stau co-annihilation is now ruled out in the CMSSM at more than 95% confidence. Stop co-annihilation turns out to be one of the most promising mechanisms for achieving an appropriate relic density of darkmatter in all threemodels, whilst avoiding all other constraints. We find high-likelihood regions of parameter space featuring light stops and charginos, making them potentially detectable in the near future at the LHC. We also show that tonne-scale direct detection will play a largely complementary role, probing large parts of the remaining viable parameter space, including essentially all models with multi-TeV neutralinos.
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6.
  • Athron, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • SpecBit, DecayBit and PrecisionBit : GAMBIT modules for computing mass spectra, particle decay rates and precision observables
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044. ; 78:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the GAMBIT modules SpecBit, DecayBit and PrecisionBit. Together they provide a new framework for linking publicly available spectrum generators, decay codes and other precision observable calculations in a physically and statistically consistent manner. This allows users to automatically run various combinations of existing codes as if they are a single package. The modular design allows software packages fulfilling the same role to be exchanged freely at runtime, with the results presented in a common format that can easily be passed to downstream dark matter, collider and flavour codes. These modules constitute an essential part of the broader GAMBIT framework, a major new software package for performing global fits. In this paper we present the observable calculations, data, and likelihood functions implemented in the three modules, as well as the conventions and assumptions used in interfacing them with external codes. We also present 3-BIT-HIT, a command-line utility for computing mass spectra, couplings, decays and precision observables in the MSSM, which shows how the three modules can easily be used independently of GAMBIT.
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7.
  • Athron, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Status of the scalar singlet dark matter model
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044. ; 77:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the simplest viable models for dark matter is an additional neutral scalar, stabilised by a symmetry. Using the GAMBIT package and combining results from four independent samplers, we present Bayesian and frequentist global fits of this model. We vary the singlet mass and coupling along with 13 nuisance parameters, including nuclear uncertainties relevant for direct detection, the local dark matter density, and selected quark masses and couplings. We include the dark matter relic density measured by Planck, direct searches with LUX, PandaX, SuperCDMS and XENON100, limits on invisible Higgs decays from the Large Hadron Collider, searches for high-energy neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun with IceCube, and searches for gamma rays from annihilation in dwarf galaxies with the Fermi-LAT. Viable solutions remain at couplings of order unity, for singlet masses between the Higgs mass and about 300 GeV, and at masses above 1 TeV. Only in the latter case can the scalar singlet constitute all of dark matter. Frequentist analysis shows that the low-mass resonance region, where the singlet is about half the mass of the Higgs, can also account for all of dark matter, and remains viable. However, Bayesian considerations show this region to be rather fine-tuned.
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8.
  • Balázs, Csaba, et al. (författare)
  • ColliderBit : a GAMBIT module for the calculation of high-energy collider observables and likelihoods
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044. ; 77:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe ColliderBit, a new code for the calculation of high energy collider observables in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). ColliderBit features a generic interface to BSM models, a unique parallelised Monte Carlo event generation scheme suitable for large-scale supercomputer applications, and a number of LHC analyses, covering a reasonable range of the BSM signatures currently sought by ATLAS and CMS. ColliderBit also calculates likelihoods for Higgs sector observables, and LEP searches for BSM particles. These features are provided by a combination of new code unique to ColliderBit, and interfaces to existing state-of-the-art public codes. ColliderBit is both an important part of the GAMBIT framework for BSM inference, and a standalone tool for efficiently applying collider constraints to theories of new physics.
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9.
  • Bernlochner, Florian U., et al. (författare)
  • FlavBit : a GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044. ; 77:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour observables, including detailed uncertainties and correlations associated with LHCb measurements of rare, leptonic and semileptonic decays of B and D mesons, kaons and pions. It provides a generalised interface to external theory codes such as Superlso, allowing users to calculate flavour observables in and beyond the Standard Model, and then test them in detail against all relevant experimental data. We describe FlavBit and its constituent physics in some detail, then give examples from supersymmetry and effective field theory illustrating how it can be used both as a standalone library for flavour physics, and within GAMBIT.
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10.
  • Bringmann, Torsten, et al. (författare)
  • DarkBit : a GAMBIT module for computing dark matter observables and likelihoods
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044. ; 77:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We introduce DarkBit, an advanced software code for computing dark matter constraints on various extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics, comprising both new native code and interfaces to external packages. This release includes a dedicated signal yield calculator for gamma-ray observations, which significantly extends current tools by implementing a cascade decay Monte Carlo, as well as a dedicated likelihood calculator for current and future experiments (gamLike). This provides a general solution for studying complex particle physics models that predict dark matter annihilation to a multitude of final states. We also supply a direct detection package that models a large range of direct detection experiments (DDCalc), and provides the corresponding likelihoods for arbitrary combinations of spin-independent and spin-dependent scattering processes. Finally, we provide custom relic density routines along with interfaces to DarkSUSY, micrOMEGAs, and the neutrino telescope likelihood package nulike. DarkBit is written in the framework of the Global And Modular Beyond the StandardModel Inference Tool (GAMBIT), providing seamless integration into a comprehensive statistical fitting framework that allows users to explore new models with both particle and astrophysics constraints, and a con-sistent treatment of systematic uncertainties. In this paper we describe its main functionality, provide a guide to getting started quickly, and show illustrative examples for results obtained with DarkBit (both as a standalone tool and as a GAMBIT module). This includes a quantitative comparison between two of the main dark matter codes (DarkSUSY and micrOMEGAs), and application of DarkBit's advanced direct and indirect detection routines to a simple effective dark matter model.
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