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Sökning: WFRF:(Dalgaard Majken)

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1.
  • Borch, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • Mechanisms underlying the anti-androgenic effects of diethylhexyl phthalate in fetal rat testis
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Toxicology. - Elsevier. - 0300-483X. ; 223:1-2, s. 144-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in consumer products and is known to disturb the development of the male reproductive system in rats. The mechanisms by which DEHP exerts these effects are not yet fully elucidated, though some of the effects are related to reduced fetal testosterone production. The present study investigated the effects of four different doses of DEHP on fetal testicular histopathology, testosterone production and expression of proteins and genes involved in steroid synthesis in fetal testes. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged from GD 7 to 21 with vehicle, 10, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg bw/day of DEHP. In male fetuses examined at GD 21, testicular testosterone production ex vivo and testicular testosterone levels were reduced significantly at the highest dose. Histopathological effects on gonocytes were observed at 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day, whereas Leydig cell effects were mainly seen at 300 mg/kg bw/day. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed reduced testicular mRNA expression of the steroidogenesis related factors SR-B1, StAR, PBR and P450scc. Additionally, we observed reduced mRNA expression of the nuclear receptor SF-1, which regulates certain steps in steroid synthesis, and reduced expression of the cryptorchidism-associated Insl-3. Immunohistochemistry showed clear reductions of StAR, PBR, P450scc and PPARgamma protein levels in fetal Leydig cells, indicating that DEHP affects regulation of certain steps in cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis. The suppression of testosterone levels observed in phthalate-exposed fetal rats was likely caused by the low expression of these receptors and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis. It is conceivable that the observed effects of DEHP on the expression of nuclear receptors SF-1 and PPARgamma are involved in the downregulation of steroidogenic factors and testosterone levels and thereby underlie the disturbed development of the male reproductive system.
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2.
  • Laier, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Mechanisms of action underlying the antiandrogenic effects of the fungicide prochloraz
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. - Academic Press. - 1096-0333. ; 213:2, s. 160-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fungicide prochloraz has got multiple mechanisms of action that may influence the demasculinizing and reproductive toxic effects of the compound. In the present study, Wistar rats were dosed perinatally with prochloraz (50 and 150 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 16. Caesarian sections were performed on selected dams at GD 21, while others were allowed to give birth to pups that were followed until PND 16. Prochloraz caused mild dysgenesis of the male external genitalia as well as reduced anogenital distance and retention of nipples in male pups. An increased anogenital distance indicated virilization of female pups. Effects on steroidogenesis in male fetuses became evident as decreased testicular and plasma levels of testosterone and increased levels of progesterone. Ex vivo synthesis of both steroid hormones was qualitatively similarly affected by prochloraz. Immunohistochemistry of fetal testes showed increased expression of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) and a reduction in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (type 10) expression, whereas no changes in expression of genes involved in testicular steroidogenesis were observed. Increased expression of P450c17 mRNA was observed in fetal male adrenals, and the androgen-regulated genes ornithine decarboxylase, prostatic binding protein C3 as well as insulin-like growth factor I mRNA were reduced in ventral prostates PND 16. These results indicate that reduced activity of P450c17 may be a primary cause of the disrupted fetal steroidogenesis and that an altered androgen metabolism may play a role as well. In vitro studies on human adrenocortical carcinoma cells supported the findings in vivo as reduced testosterone and increased progesterone levels were observed. Overall, these results together indicate that prochloraz acts directly on the fetal testis to inhibit steroidogenesis and that this effect is exhibited at protein, and not at genomic, level.
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