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1.
  • Schweinsberg, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Same data, different conclusions : Radical dispersion in empirical results when independent analysts operationalize and test the same hypothesis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. - : Elsevier BV. - 0749-5978 .- 1095-9920. ; 165, s. 228-249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this crowdsourced initiative, independent analysts used the same dataset to test two hypotheses regarding the effects of scientists' gender and professional status on verbosity during group meetings. Not only the analytic approach but also the operationalizations of key variables were left unconstrained and up to individual analysts. For instance, analysts could choose to operationalize status as job title, institutional ranking, citation counts, or some combination. To maximize transparency regarding the process by which analytic choices are made, the analysts used a platform we developed called DataExplained to justify both preferred and rejected analytic paths in real time. Analyses lacking sufficient detail, reproducible code, or with statistical errors were excluded, resulting in 29 analyses in the final sample. Researchers reported radically different analyses and dispersed empirical outcomes, in a number of cases obtaining significant effects in opposite directions for the same research question. A Boba multiverse analysis demonstrates that decisions about how to operationalize variables explain variability in outcomes above and beyond statistical choices (e.g., covariates). Subjective researcher decisions play a critical role in driving the reported empirical results, underscoring the need for open data, systematic robustness checks, and transparency regarding both analytic paths taken and not taken. Implications for orga-nizations and leaders, whose decision making relies in part on scientific findings, consulting reports, and internal analyses by data scientists, are discussed.
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2.
  • Cirtwill, Alyssa, et al. (författare)
  • A review of species role concepts in food webs
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Food Webs. - 2352-2496. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many different concepts have been used to describe species' roles in food webs (i.e., the ways in which species participate in their communities as consumers and resources). As each concept focuses on a different aspect of food-web structure, it can be difficult to relate these concepts to each other and to other aspects of ecology. Here we use the Eltonian niche as an overarching framework, within which we summarize several commonly-used role concepts (degree, trophic level, motif roles, and centrality). We focus mainly on the topological versions of these concepts but, where dynamical versions of a role concept exist, we acknowledge these as well. Our aim is to highlight areas of overlap and ambiguity between different role concepts and to describe how these roles can be used to group species according to different strategies (i.e., equivalence and functional roles). The existence of “gray areas” between role concepts make it essential for authors to carefully consider both which role concept(s) are most appropriate for the analyses they wish to conduct and what aspect of species' niches (if any) they wish to address. The ecological meaning of differences between species' roles can change dramatically depending on which role concept(s) are used.
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3.
  • Cirtwill, Alyssa R., et al. (författare)
  • Related plants tend to share pollinators and herbivores, but strength of phylogenetic signal varies among plant families
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: New Phytologist. - : WILEY. - 0028-646X .- 1469-8137.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Related plants are often hypothesized to interact with similar sets of pollinators and herbivores, but this idea has only mixed empirical support. This may be because plant families vary in their tendency to share interaction partners. We quantify overlap of interaction partners for all pairs of plants in 59 pollination and 11 herbivory networks based on the numbers of shared and unshared interaction partners (thereby capturing both proportional and absolute overlap). We test for relationships between phylogenetic distance and partner overlap within each network; whether these relationships varied with the composition of the plant community; and whether well-represented plant families showed different relationships. Across all networks, more closely related plants tended to have greater overlap. The strength of this relationship within a network was unrelated to the composition of the networks plant component, but, when considered separately, different plant families showed different relationships between phylogenetic distance and overlap of interaction partners. The variety of relationships between phylogenetic distance and partner overlap in different plant families probably reflects a comparable variety of ecological and evolutionary processes. Considering factors affecting particular species-rich groups within a community could be the key to understanding the distribution of interactions at the network level.
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4.
  • Giovinazzo, Francesco, et al. (författare)
  • Solid Organ Transplantation During COVID-19 Pandemic: An International Web-based Survey on Resources’ Allocation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Transplantation direct. - : Wolters Kluwer Health. - 2373-8731. ; 7:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Solid organ transplants (SOTs) are life-saving interventions, recently challenged by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SOTs require a multistep process, which can be affected by COVID-19 at several phases.Methods. SOT-specialists, COVID-19-specialists, and medical ethicists designed an international survey according to CHERRIES guidelines. Personal opinions about continuing SOTs, safe managing of donors and recipients, as well as equity of resources’ allocation were investigated. The survey was sent by e-mail. Multiple approaches were used (corresponding authors from Scopus, websites of scientific societies, COVID-19 webinars). After the descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate ordinal regression analysis was performed.Results. There were 1819 complete answers from 71 countries. The response rate was 49%. Data were stratified according to region, macrospecialty, and organ of interest. Answers were analyzed using univariate-multivariate ordinal regression analysis and thematic analysis. Overall, 20% of the responders thought SOTs should not stop (continue transplant without restriction); over 70% suggested SOTs should selectively stop, and almost 10% indicated they should completely stop. Furthermore, 82% agreed to shift resources from transplant to COVID-19 temporarily. Briefly, main reason for not stopping was that if the transplant will not proceed, the organ will be wasted. Focusing on SOT from living donors, 61% stated that activity should be restricted only to “urgent” cases. At the multivariate analysis, factors identified in favor of continuing transplant were Italy, ethicist, partially disagreeing on the equity question, a high number of COVID-19-related deaths on the day of the answer, a high IHDI country. Factors predicting to stop SOTs were Europe except-Italy, public university hospital, and strongly agreeing on the equity question.Conclusions. In conclusion, the majority of responders suggested that transplant activity should be continued through the implementation of isolation measures and the adoption of the COVID-19-free pathways. Differences between professional categories are less strong than supposed.
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