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Sökning: WFRF:(Dalton Susanne Oksbjerg)

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2.
  • Larsen, Signe Benzon, et al. (författare)
  • Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - IFAC & Elsevier Ltd.. - 1879-0852. ; 49:14, s. 3041-3048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer. Methods and material: Case-control study nested within the Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort of 27,179 men aged 50-64 at enrolment. PSA measured in serum collected at cohort entry in 1993-1997 was used to evaluate prostate cancer risk diagnosed up to 14 years after. We identified 911 prostate cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry through 31st December 2007 1:1 age-matched with cancer-free controls. Aggressive cancer was defined as >= T3 or Gleason score >= 7 or N1 or M1. Statistical analyses were based on conditional logistic regression with age as underlying time axis. Results: Total PSA and free-to-total PSA ratio at baseline were strongly associated with prostate cancer risk up to 14 years later. PSA was grouped in quintiles and free-to-total PSA ratio divided in three risk groups. The incidence rate ratio for prostate cancer was 150 (95% confidence interval, 72-310) among men with a total PSA in the highest quintile (>5.1 ng/ml) compared to the lowest (<0.80 ng/ml). The risk of aggressive cancer was highly elevated in men with a PSA level in the highest quintile. The results indicate that one-time measurement of PSA could be used in an individualised screening strategy, sparing a large proportion of men from further PSA-based screening. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Sacerdote, Carlotta, et al. (författare)
  • Lower educational level is a predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in European countries : The EPIC-InterAct study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771. ; 41:4, s. 1162-1173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. In high- income countries, low socioeconomic status seems to be related to a high incidence of T2DM, but very little is known about the intermediate factors of this relationship.Method We performed a case-cohort study in eight Western European countries nested in the EPIC study (n = 340 234, 3.99 million person-years of follow-up). A random sub-cohort of 16 835 individuals and a total of 12 403 incident cases of T2DM were identified. Crude and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for each country and pooled across countries using meta-analytical methods. Age-, gender- and country-specific relative indices of inequality (RII) were used as the measure of educational level and RII tertiles were analysed.Results Compared with participants with a high educational level (RII tertile 1), participants with a low educational level (RII tertile 3) had a higher risk of T2DM [HR: 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.69-1.85; P-trend &lt; 0.01]. The HRs adjusted for physical activity, smoking status and propensity score according to macronutrient intake were very similar to the crude HR (adjusted HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.52-1.83 in men; HR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.73-2.05 in women). The HRs were attenuated only when they were further adjusted for BMI (BMI-adjusted HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.23-1.51 in men; HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.20-1.45 in women).Conclusion This study demonstrates the inequalities in the risk of T2DM in Western European countries, with an inverse relationship between educational level and risk of T2DM that is only partially explained by variations in BMI.
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4.
  • van Boeckel, Petra G A, et al. (författare)
  • No association between educational level and pancreatic cancer incidence in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology. - Elsevier. - 1877-7821. ; 34:6, s. 696-701
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Until now, studies examining the relationship between socioeconomic status and pancreatic cancer incidence have been inconclusive. Aim: To prospectively investigate to what extent pancreatic cancer incidence varies according to educational level within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: In the EPIC study, socioeconomic status at baseline was measured using the highest level of education attained. Hazard ratios by educational level and a summary index, the relative indices of inequality (Rh), were estimated using Cox regression models stratified by age, gender, and center and adjusted for known risk factors. In addition, we conducted separate analyses by age, gender and geographical region. Results: Within the source population of 407, 944 individuals at baseline, 490 first incident primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases were identified in 9 European countries. The crude difference in risk of pancreatic cancer according to level of education was small and not statistically significant (RII = 1.14, 95% CI 0.80-1.62). Adjustment for known risk factors reduced the inequality estimates to only a small extent. In addition, no statistically significant associations were observed for age groups (adjusted RII <= (60) (years) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.44-1.64, adjusted RII> 60 years = 1.18, 95% CI 0.73-1.90), gender (adjusted RIImale = 1.20, 95% CI 0.68-2.10, adjusted RIIfemale = 0.96, 95% CI 0.56-1.62) or geographical region (adjusted RIINorthern Europe = 1.14, 95% CI 0.81-1.61, adjusted RIIMiddle (Europe) = 1.72, 95% CI 0.93-3.19, adjusted RIISouthern Europe = 0.75, 95% CI 0.32-1.80). Conclusion: Despite large educational inequalities in many risk factors within the EPIC study, we found no evidence for an association between educational level and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer in this European cohort. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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