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Sökning: WFRF:(Damber J.E.)

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2.
  • Häggström, S, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of finasteride on vascular endothelial growth factor.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599. ; 36:3, s. 182-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Finasteride has been shown to reduce prostate bleeding in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanisms behind this are not known, but it has been suggested that finasteride reduces bleeding by inhibiting angiogenesis in the prostate. Studies in animals have shown that castration rapidly induces involution of the prostate vasculature, and androgen-stimulated prostate growth may be angiogenesis dependent. The objective of this study was to explore the response to finasteride on the vasculature and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent regulatory factor of angiogenesis in human prostate tissue.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with BPH were randomly assigned to 3 months of treatment either with finasteride (5 mg/day) or placebo before undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Prostate tissue VEGF expression was quantified by Western blot and the vascular density determined in Factor VIII immunostained tissue sections. Serum concentrations of VEGF were measured with ELISA technique.RESULTS: Patients treated with finasteride (n = 15) showed a decrease in prostate tissue VEGF(165) expression compared with placebo (n = 13) treated patients (p < 0.05), but the vascular density and the serum VEGF levels were unaffected.CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that finasteride treatment decreases VEGF expression in the human prostate.
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3.
  • Sandblom, G, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate-specific antigen as surrogate for characterizing prostate cancer subgroups
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 36:2, s. 106-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVETo evaluate how serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer vary with age and intensity in the diagnostic activity and to describe the treatment selection processes associated with PSA level.MATERIAL AND METHODSAll men in the Swedish National Prostate Cancer Register diagnosed during 1996-1997 were included. In 1996 the register included 19 counties, covering 61% of the Swedish male population, and in 1997 21 counties with 79% of the Swedish male population.RESULTSA total of 8328 men were registered. PSA levels were missing in 341 cases. With increasing PSA there was a shift towards more advanced and poorly differentiated tumours. PSA at diagnosis increased with age, with the exception of patients younger than 50 years who had higher PSA values. The mean logarithm of PSA correlated negatively with the percentage of localized tumours (p < 0.005) and the age-adjusted incidence (p < 0.05) in each respective county in 1997. PSA was higher in men receiving radiotherapy compared with those treated with radical prostatectomy as well as in the group treated with bilateral orchiectomy compared with those receiving GnRH-analogues.CONCLUSIONSIf PSA is used as a surrogate measure of extent of tumour volume in a population of prostate cancer patients, our findings indicate that age distribution and differences in incidence (possibly due to variation in diagnostic activity) should be taken into account. In our cohort there was a selection process, probably in part guided by PSA level, when choosing type of curative or palliative treatment.
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4.
  • Sandblom, G, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen for Prostate Cancer Staging in a Population-based Register
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599. ; 36:2, s. 99-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Previous studies have shown a relationship between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and prostate tumour volume. Reports based on selected case series have also indicated that serum PSA may be used for staging, although a varying prevalence of metastasizing tumours complicates the interpretation of these studies. In order to determine the accuracy of the serum level of PSA in predicting the presence of metastases we performed a prospective cohort study of a geographically defined population of men with prostate cancer.Methods: Serum level of PSA and the results of investigations for regional lymph node and distant metastases were recorded for all 8328 men with prostate cancer registered in the Swedish National Prostate Cancer Register 1996-1997.Results: The prevalence of lymph node metastases among men who had undergone lymph node exploration was 4%, 16% and 33% for well, moderately and poorly differentiated tumours. The corresponding prevalence of distant metastases was 12%, 30% and 48%. With serum PSA <20 ng/ml as a cut-off point the negative likelihood ratios for well and moderately differentiated tumours were found to be 0.47 and 0.45 for lymph node metastases and 0.24 and 0.18 for distant metastases, resulting in post-test probabilities >92% for the exclusion of metastases. In men with poorly differentiated tumours, the negative likelihood ratio would need to be even lower to safely exclude disseminated disease.Conclusion: For well to moderately differentiated tumours, further investigations to assess the presence of metastases may be omitted with no great risk for understaging if serum PSA <20 ng/ml.
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5.
  • Armstrong, A J, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term Survival and Biomarker Correlates of Tasquinimod Efficacy in a Multicenter Randomized Study of Men with Minimally Symptomatic Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 19:24, s. 6891-6901
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Tasquinimod (Active Biotech) is an oral immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-metastatic agent that delayed metastatic disease progression in a randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we report long-term survival with biomarker correlates from this trial.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Two hundred and one (134 tasquinimod and 67 placebo) men with mCRPC were evaluated. Forty-one men randomized to placebo crossed over to tasquinimod. Survival data were collected with a median follow-up time of 37 months. Exploratory biomarker studies at baseline and over time were collected to evaluate potential mechanism-based correlates with tasquinimod efficacy including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).RESULTS: With 111 mortality events, median OS was 33.4 months for tasquinimod versus 30.4 months for placebo overall, and 34.2 versus 27.1 months in men with bone metastases (n = 136), respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated an adjusted HR of 0.52 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.78; P = 0.001] for PFS and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.42-0.97; P = 0.034) for OS, favoring tasquinimod. Time-to-symptomatic progression was improved with tasquinimod (P = 0.039, HR = 0.42). Toxicities tended to be mild in nature and improved over time. Biomarker analyses suggested a favorable impact on bone alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) over time and a transient induction of inflammatory biomarkers, VEGF-A, and thrombospondin-1 levels with tasquinimod. Baseline levels of thrombospondin-1 less than the median were predictive of treatment benefit.CONCLUSIONS: The survival observed in this trial of men with minimally symptomatic mCRPC suggests that the prolongation in PFS with tasquinimod may lead to a survival advantage in this setting, particularly among men with skeletal metastases, and has a favorable risk:benefit ratio. 
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6.
  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in localized prostate cancer : the Scandinavian prostate cancer group-4 randomized trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 100:16, s. 1144-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The benefit of radical prostatectomy in patients with early prostate cancer has been assessed in only one randomized trial. In 2005, we reported that radical prostatectomy improved prostate cancer survival compared with watchful waiting after a median of 8.2 years of follow-up. We now report results after 3 more years of follow-up. METHODS: From October 1, 1989, through February 28, 1999, 695 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy (n = 347) or watchful waiting (n = 348). Follow-up was complete through December 31, 2006, with histopathologic review and blinded evaluation of causes of death. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a median of 10.8 years of follow-up (range = 3 weeks to 17.2 years), 137 men in the surgery group and 156 in the watchful waiting group died (P = .09). For 47 of the 347 men (13.5%) who were randomly assigned to surgery and 68 of the 348 men (19.5%) who were not, death was due to prostate cancer. The difference in cumulative incidence of death due to prostate cancer remained stable after about 10 years of follow-up. At 12 years, 12.5% of the surgery group and 17.9% of the watchful waiting group had died of prostate cancer (difference = 5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 11.1%), for a relative risk of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.45 to 0.94; P = .03). The difference in cumulative incidence of distant metastases did not increase beyond 10 years of follow-up. At 12 years, 19.3% of men in the surgery group and 26% of men in the watchful waiting group had been diagnosed with distant metastases (difference = 6.7%, 95% CI = 0.2 to 13.2%), for a relative risk of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.47 to 0.88; P = .006). Among men who underwent radical prostatectomy, those with extracapsular tumor growth had 14 times the risk of prostate cancer death as those without it (RR = 14.2, 95% CI = 3.3 to 61.8; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Radical prostatectomy reduces prostate cancer mortality and risk of metastases with little or no further increase in benefit 10 or more years after surgery.
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7.
  • Bratt, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Hereditary prostate cancer: clinical characteristics and survival
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1527-3792. ; 167:6, s. 2423-2426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Hereditary prostate cancer accounts for 5% to 10% of all prostate cancer cases. We assessed clinical characteristics and survival in patients with hereditary prostate cancer MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 201 patients from 62 Swedish hereditary prostate cancer families and 402 controls with prostate cancer who were matched for age and calendar year at diagnosis, and the hospital where the diagnosis was made. Clinical data were obtained from the National Cancer Registry, Causes of Death Registry and medical records. RESULTS: Median age at the diagnosis of hereditary prostate cancer was 68 years, which was 6 years less than in patients with prostate cancer in the general population in Sweden. Distributions of tumor grade, symptoms at diagnosis and initial therapy were similar in hereditary prostate cancer cases and controls. More controls were classified with localized disease but it may have been due to methodological problems. Overall and cancer specific survival was similar in patients with hereditary prostate cancer and controls as well as in subgroup analyses including those with early onset and those diagnosed before 1990. Prostate cancer was the cause of death in 75% of patients with hereditary prostate cancer, in contrast to 55% with prostate cancer in the Swedish population. This difference was completely explained by the earlier age at the diagnosis of hereditary prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Hereditary prostate cancer has an earlier onset than sporadic prostate cancer but this study did not indicate any other important difference in clinical characteristics or survival in patients with hereditary prostate cancer and those with sporadic prostate cancer. However, it cannot be excluded that individual hereditary prostate cancer genes may have specific biological characteristics.
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8.
  • Bratt, O, et al. (författare)
  • Risk perception, screening practice and interest in genetic testing among unaffected men in families with hereditary prostate cancer
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - IFAC & Elsevier Ltd.. - 0959-8049. ; 36:2, s. 235-241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approximately 5-10% of prostate cancer cases are caused by dominantly inherited susceptibility to the disease. Although advances have been made in research concerning the genetic mechanisms of hereditary prostate cancer, little is known about the psychological consequences for men at high risk of developing the disease. The aims of the present study were to examine risk perception, interest in genetic investigations, cancer-specific worry, and screening practice among unaffected men, aged 40-72 years old, with a pedigree consistent with hereditary prostate cancer and an estimated lifetime risk of prostate cancer of 35-45%. A questionnaire was sent by mail to 120 subjects, of whom 110 responded. Most of the men (n = 90, 82%) worried about having an inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer, and 34 (31%) claimed that worry about prostate cancer affected their daily life (3 (3%) fairly much, 31 (28%) slightly). As many as 40% of the study subjects perceived their lifetime risk of prostate cancer as 67% or more. Perceived high risk was associated with symptoms of depression and with cancer worry affecting daily living. Two-thirds of the men aged 50 years old or more were regularly screened for prostate cancer. Subjects with high levels of cancer-specific stress, as measured by the avoidance subscale of the Impact of Event Scale, were less likely to opt for screening. Almost all of the men (94%) were interested in presymptomatic genetic testing (84 (76%) "definitely yes" and 20 (18%) "probably yes"). We conclude that hereditary susceptibility to prostate cancer has significant psychological consequences although it rarely causes psychiatric morbidity. The present study underlines the importance of giving thorough, repeated information to men at high risk of prostate cancer.
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10.
  • Franck-Lissbrant, I, et al. (författare)
  • Testosterone stimulates angiogenesis and vascular regrowth in the ventral prostate in castrated adult rats.
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Endocrinology. - 0013-7227. ; 139:2, s. 451-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The castration-induced regression and testosterone stimulated regrowth of the vasculature in the rat ventral prostate lobe were studied using stereological techniques. Seven days after castration, the endothelial cell proliferation rate (bromodeoxyuridine labeling index); the total weights of blood vessel walls, blood vessel lumina, endothelial cells, glandular epithelial cells; and total organ weight were all decreased. Within 2 days after sc treatment with testosterone, the total weights of blood vessel walls, endothelial cells, and vascular lumina, as well as the endothelial cell proliferation rate, were all normalized. In contrast to the rapid response of the vasculature, the total weight of glandular epithelium and total organ weight were not normalized during the 4 days of testosterone treatment. Growth of the vasculature apparently precedes growth of the glandular epithelium. The testosterone- dependent factors stimulating the vasculature are unknown, but factors derived from epithelial cells, mast cells (which accumulate in the prostate during the first day of testosterone treatment), and tissue macrophages could all be involved. Castration-induced regression and testosterone-stimulated regrowth of the prostatic vasculature can be used as an experimental model to study factors regulating angiogenesis and organ growth in the prostate.
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