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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Damia Giovanna) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Damia Giovanna)

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1.
  • Block, Keith I., et al. (författare)
  • Designing a broad-spectrum integrative approach for cancer prevention and treatment
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Seminars in Cancer Biology. - Academic Press. - 1044-579X .- 1096-3650. ; 35, s. S276-S304
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Targeted therapies and the consequent adoption of "personalized" oncology have achieved notable successes in some cancers; however, significant problems remain with this approach. Many targeted therapies are highly toxic, costs are extremely high, and most patients experience relapse after a few disease-free months. Relapses arise from genetic heterogeneity in tumors, which harbor therapy-resistant immortalized cells that have adopted alternate and compensatory pathways (i.e., pathways that are not reliant upon the same mechanisms as those which have been targeted). To address these limitations, an international task force of 180 scientists was assembled to explore the concept of a low-toxicity "broadspectrum" therapeutic approach that could simultaneously target many key pathways and mechanisms. Using cancer hallmark phenotypes and the tumor microenvironment to account for the various aspects of relevant cancer biology, interdisciplinary teams reviewed each hallmark area and nominated a wide range of high-priority targets (74 in total) that could be modified to improve patient outcomes. For these targets, corresponding low-toxicity therapeutic approaches were then suggested, many of which were phytochemicals. Proposed actions on each target and all of the approaches were further reviewed for known effects on other hallmark areas and the tumor microenvironment Potential contrary or procarcinogenic effects were found for 3.9% of the relationships between targets and hallmarks, and mixed evidence of complementary and contrary relationships was found for 7.1%. Approximately 67% of the relationships revealed potentially complementary effects, and the remainder had no known relationship. Among the approaches, 1.1% had contrary, 2.8% had mixed and 62.1% had complementary relationships. These results suggest that a broad-spectrum approach should be feasible from a safety standpoint. This novel approach has potential to be relatively inexpensive, it should help us address stages and types of cancer that lack conventional treatment, and it may reduce relapse risks. A proposed agenda for future research is offered. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p>
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2.
  • D'Incalci, Maurizio, et al. (författare)
  • New drugs from the sea
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemotherapy. - Italian Society of Chemotherapy. - 1120-009X. ; 16:Suppl 4, s. 9-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper illustrates some biochemical and pharmacological properties of two natural marine products such as trabectedin (ET-743, Yondelis) and aplidine. Trabectedin has shown clinical antitumor activity in refractory soft tissue sarcoma and ovarian cancer. The lack of cross resistance of trabectedin with other chemotherapeutic drugs is presumably related to its peculiar mode of action, that seems to be related to a promoter-dependent transcription modulation. Aplidine is a potent pro-apoptotic inducer in human leukemia and has antiangiogenic properties. These examples support the view that more research should be carried out to investigate new natural marine products since there are compounds among them with antitumor properties. Some of them appear to act by mechanisms different from those of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and thus may be effective against tumors for which no active drugs are available.
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3.
  • D'Incalci, Maurizio, et al. (författare)
  • Unique features of the mode of action of ET-743.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The oncologist. - 1083-7159. ; 7:3, s. 210-6
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes the current knowledge of the primary mode of action of a natural product, ecteinascidin 743 (ET-743), derived from the marine tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata. ET-743 was initially selected for preclinical development because of its potent antitumor activity observed against several human solid tumor types. In vitro, the drug is cytotoxic in the nanomolar range, and in the case of some very sensitive cell lines, in the picomolar range. The large potency differences observed among several solid tumor types indicate that this compound possesses some tumor selectivity, but the molecular basis of these differential effects remains to be elucidated. The present studies were undertaken to evaluate the mechanism of action of ET-743 in this context. The available information on ET-743 binding to DNA and its effects on transcriptional regulation point to a unique behavior of this drug, as it independently affects specific gene transcription in a promoter-dependent way. In addition, ET-743 shows a peculiar pattern of selectivity in cells with different defects in their DNA-repair pathways. These results highlight a unique property of ET-743, possibly explaining why it possesses antitumor activity against tumors that are refractory to standard anticancer drugs, all of which certainly act by mechanisms that are different from that of ET-743.
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4.
  • Ganzinelli, Monica, et al. (författare)
  • Checkpoint kinase 1 down-regulation by an inducible small interfering RNA expression system sensitized in vivo tumors to treatment with 5-fluorouracil
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 14:16, s. 41-5131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: After DNA damage, checkpoints pathways are activated in the cells to halt the cell cycle, thus ensuring repair or inducing cell death. To better investigate the role of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) in cellular response to different anticancer agents, Chk1 was knocked down in HCT-116 cell line and in its p53-deficient subline by using small interfering RNAs (siRNA).EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Chk1 was abrogated by transient transfection of specific siRNA against it, and stable tetracycline-inducible Chk1 siRNA clones were obtained transfecting cells with a plasmid expressing two siRNA against Chk1. The validated inducible system was then translated in an in vivo setting by transplanting the inducible clones in nude mice.RESULTS: Transient Chk1 down-regulation sensitized HCT-116 cells, p53-/- more than the p53 wild-type counterpart, to DNA-damaging agents 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin, and etoposide treatments, with no modification of Taxol and PS341 cytotoxic activities. Inhibition of Chk1 protein levels in inducible clones on induction with doxycycline correlated with an increased cisplatin and 5-FU activity. Such effect was more evident in a p53-deficient background. These clones were transplanted in nude mice and a clear Chk1 down-regulation was shown in tumor samples of mice given tetracycline in the drinking water by immunohistochemical detection of Chk1 protein. More importantly, an increased 5-FU antitumor activity was found in tumors with the double Chk1 and p53 silencing.CONCLUSIONS: These findings corroborate the fact that Chk1 protein is a molecular target to be inhibited in tumors with a defective G1 checkpoint to increase the selectivity of anticancer treatments.
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5.
  • Tavecchio, M, et al. (författare)
  • Role of homologous recombination in trabectedin-induced DNA damage
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - Elsevier. - 0959-8049. ; 44:4, s. 18-609
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trabectedin (ET-743, Yondelis) is a natural marine compound with antitumour activity currently undergoing phase II/III clinical trials. The mechanism of the drug's action is still to be defined, even though it has been clearly demonstrated the key role of Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). To get further insights into the drug's mode of action, we studied the involvement of the DNA-double strand break repair (DNA-DSB) pathways: homologous and non-homologous recombination, both in budding yeasts and in mammalian cells and the possible cross-talk between NER and these repair pathways. Budding yeasts and mammalian cells deficient in the non-homologous end-joining pathway were moderately sensitive to trabectedin, while systems deficient in the homologous recombination pathway were extremely sensitive to the drug, with a 100-fold decrease in the IC50, suggesting that trabectedin-induced lesions are repaired by this pathway. The induction of Rad51 foci and the appearance of gamma-H2AX were chosen as putative markers for DNA-DSBs and were studied at different time points after trabectedin treatment in NER proficient and deficient systems. Both were clearly detected only in the presence of an active NER, suggesting that the DSBs are not directly caused by the drug, but are formed during the processing/repair of the drug- induced lesions.
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