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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(DeClercq C.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(DeClercq C.)

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1.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Development of a general analysis and unfolding scheme and its application to measure the energy spectrum of atmospheric neutrinos with IceCube
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 75:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the development and application of a generic analysis scheme for the measurement of neutrino spectra with the IceCube detector. This scheme is based on regularized unfolding, preceded by an event selection which uses a Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance algorithm to select the relevant variables and a random forest for the classification of events. The analysis has been developed using IceCube data from the 59-string configuration of the detector. 27,771 neutrino candidates were detected in 346 days of livetime. A rejection of 99.9999 % of the atmospheric muon background is achieved. The energy spectrum of the atmospheric neutrino flux is obtained using the TRUEE unfolding program. The unfolded spectrum of atmospheric muon neutrinos covers an energy range from 100 GeV to 1 PeV. Compared to the previous measurement using the detector in the 40-string configuration, the analysis presented here, extends the upper end of the atmospheric neutrino spectrum by more than a factor of two, reaching an energy region that has not been previously accessed by spectral measurements.
2.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • An absence of neutrinos associated with cosmic-ray acceleration in gamma-ray bursts
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 484:7394, s. 351-354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Very energetic astrophysical events are required to accelerate cosmic rays to above 10(18) electronvolts. GRBs (c-ray bursts) have been proposed as possible candidate sources(1-3). In the GRB 'fireball' model, cosmic-ray acceleration should be accompanied by neutrinos produced in the decay of charged pions created in interactions between the high-energy cosmic-ray protons and gamma-rays(4). Previous searches for such neutrinos found none, but the constraints were weak because the sensitivity was at best approximately equal to the predicted flux(5-7). Here we report an upper limit on the flux of energetic neutrinos associated with GRBs that is at least a factor of 3.7 below the predictions(4,8-10). This implies either that GRBs are not the only sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10(18) electronvolts or that the efficiency of neutrino production is much lower than has been predicted.
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  • Cyrys, Josef, et al. (författare)
  • Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas : Results from the ESCAPE study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 62, s. 374-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe.In all study areas NO2 and NOx were measured using standardized methods between October 2008 and April 2011. On average, 41 sites were selected per study area, including regional and urban background as well as street sites. The measurements were conducted in three different seasons, using Ogawa badges. Average concentrations for each site were calculated after adjustment for temporal variation using data obtained from a routine monitor background site.Substantial spatial variability was found in NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within study areas; 40% of the overall NO2 variance was attributable to the variability between study areas and 60% to variability within study areas. The corresponding values for NOx were 30% and 70%. The within-area spatial variability was mostly determined by differences between street and urban background concentrations. The street/urban background concentration ratio for NO2 varied between 1.09 and 3.16 across areas. The highest median concentrations were observed in Southern Europe, the lowest in Northern Europe.In conclusion, we found significant contrasts in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations between and especially within 36 study areas across Europe. Epidemiological long-term studies should therefore consider different approaches for better characterization of the intra-urban contrasts, either by increasing of the number of monitors or by modelling.
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  • Fripiat, F., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of the bordering shelves on nutrient distribution in the Arctic halocline inferred from water column nitrate isotopes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - 0024-3590. ; 63:5, s. 2154-2170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The East Siberian Sea and contiguous western Arctic Ocean basin are characterized by a subsurface nutrient maximum in the halocline, generally attributed to both Pacific inflow and intensive remineralization in shelf bottom waters that are advected into the central basin. We report nitrogen and oxygen isotopic measurement of nitrate from the East Siberian Sea and western Eurasian Basin, in order to gain insight into how nitrate is processed by the microbial community and redistributed in the Arctic Ocean. A large decoupling between nitrate delta N-15 and delta O-18 is reported, increasing and decreasing upward from the Atlantic temperature maximum layer toward the surface, respectively. A correlation between water and nitrate delta O-18 indicates that most of the nitrate (> 60%) at the halocline has been regenerated within the Arctic Ocean. The increase in nitrate delta N-15 correlates with the fixed N deficit, indicating a causal link between the loss of fixed N and the delta N-15 enrichment. This suggests that a significant share of benthic denitrification is driven by nitrate supplied by remineralization and partial nitrification, allowing residual delta N-15-enriched ammonium to diffuse out of the sediments. By increasing nutrient concentrations and fixed N deficit in shelf bottom waters, this imprint is attenuated offshore following advection into the halocline by nitrate regeneration and mixing. Estimation of the sedimentary isotope effect related to benthic denitrification yields values in the range of 2.4-3.8 parts per thousand, with its magnitude driven by both the degree of coupling between remineralization and nitrification, and fixed N concentrations in shelf bottom waters.
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