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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Dehling D. Matthias) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Dehling D. Matthias)

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1.
  • Dormann, Carsten F., et al. (författare)
  • Biotic interactions in species distribution modelling : 10 questions to guide interpretation and avoid false conclusions
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography. - 1466-822X .- 1466-8238. ; 27:9, s. 1004-1016
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Recent studies increasingly use statistical methods to infer biotic interactions from co‐occurrence information at a large spatial scale. However, disentangling biotic interactions from other factors that can affect co‐occurrence patterns at the macroscale is a major challenge.Approach: We present a set of questions that analysts and reviewers should ask to avoid erroneously attributing species association patterns to biotic interactions. Our questions relate to the appropriateness of data and models, the causality behind a correlative signal, and the problems associated with static data from dynamic systems. We summarize caveats reported by macroecological studies of biotic interactions and examine whether conclusions on the presence of biotic interactions are supported by the modelling approaches used.Findings: Irrespective of the method used, studies that set out to test for biotic interactions find statistical associations in species’ co‐occurrences. Yet, when compared with our list of questions, few purported interpretations of such associations as biotic interactions hold up to scrutiny. This does not dismiss the presence or importance of biotic interactions, but it highlights the risk of too lenient interpretation of the data. Combining model results with information from experiments and functional traits that are relevant for the biotic interaction of interest might strengthen conclusions.Main conclusions: Moving from species‐ to community‐level models, including biotic interactions among species, is of great importance for process‐based understanding and forecasting ecological responses. We hope that our questions will help to improve these models and facilitate the interpretation of their results. In essence, we conclude that ecologists have to recognize that a species association pattern in joint species distribution models will be driven not only by real biotic interactions, but also by shared habitat preferences, common migration history, phylogenetic history and shared response to missing environmental drivers, which specifically need to be discussed and, if possible, integrated into models.
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2.
  • Schleuning, Matthias, et al. (författare)
  • Specialization of Mutualistic Interaction Networks Decreases toward Tropical Latitudes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Current Biology. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0445 .- 0960-9822. ; 22:20, s. 1925-1931
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Species-rich tropical communities are expected to be more specialized than their temperate counterparts [1-3]. Several studies have reported increasing biotic specialization toward the tropics [4-7], whereas others have not found latitudinal trends once accounting for sampling bias [8, 9] or differences in plant diversity [10, 11]. Thus, the direction of the latitudinal Specialization gradient remains contentious. With an unprecedented global data set, we investigated how biotic specialization between plants and animal pollinators or seed dispersers is associated with latitude, past and contemporary climate, and plant diversity. We show that in contrast to expectation, biotic specialization of mutualistic networks is significantly lower at tropical than at temperate latitudes. Specialization was more closely related to contemporary climate than to past climate stability, suggesting that current conditions have a stronger effect on biotic specialization than historical community stability. Biotic specialization decreased with increasing local and regional plant diversity. This suggests that high specialization of mutualistic interactions is a response of pollinators and seed dispersers to low plant diversity. This could explain why the latitudinal specialization gradient is reversed relative to the latitudinal diversity gradient. Low mutualistic network specialization in the tropics suggests higher tolerance against extinctions in tropical than in temperate communities.
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3.
  • Cirtwill, Alyssa, et al. (författare)
  • A review of species role concepts in food webs
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Food Webs. - 2352-2496. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many different concepts have been used to describe species' roles in food webs (i.e., the ways in which species participate in their communities as consumers and resources). As each concept focuses on a different aspect of food-web structure, it can be difficult to relate these concepts to each other and to other aspects of ecology. Here we use the Eltonian niche as an overarching framework, within which we summarize several commonly-used role concepts (degree, trophic level, motif roles, and centrality). We focus mainly on the topological versions of these concepts but, where dynamical versions of a role concept exist, we acknowledge these as well. Our aim is to highlight areas of overlap and ambiguity between different role concepts and to describe how these roles can be used to group species according to different strategies (i.e., equivalence and functional roles). The existence of “gray areas” between role concepts make it essential for authors to carefully consider both which role concept(s) are most appropriate for the analyses they wish to conduct and what aspect of species' niches (if any) they wish to address. The ecological meaning of differences between species' roles can change dramatically depending on which role concept(s) are used.
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