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Sökning: WFRF:(Dencker M.)

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1.
  • Håkansson, H., et al. (författare)
  • In vivo and in vitro toxicity of fractionated fish lipids, with particular regard to their content of chlorinated organic compounds
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Pharmacology and Toxicology. - 0901-9928 .- 1600-0773. ; 69:6, s. 459-471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Six different lipid matrices (the intact lipid (IL), four lipid fractions with different polarity, and the free fatty acids (FFAs) obtained by hydrolysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) containing fraction) were obtained from salmon (Salmo salar) and eel (Anguilla anguilla), each collected at a contaminated and a comparatively uncontaminated catch site along the coast of Scandinavia. The lipid matrices were studied in toxicological test systems representing various biological functions of different organ systems from several species and trophic levels. The results were evaluated with particular respect to the concentrations of extractable organically bound chlorine (EOCl) in the matrices tested. In some test systems, the specimens with a higher EOCl concentration appeared to be more toxic. For example, the TAG containing fraction (F2) from Idefjord eel, having a higher EOCl content than F2 from Oslofjord eel, reduced the number and hatchability of eggs laid by zebrafish. Both IL and F2 of Idefjord eel increased mortality and reduced the oxygen/nitrogen-ratio in blue mussels. Non-polar compounds (F1) from Bothnian Sea salmon induced 7-ethoxyresurofin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rainbow trout hepatocytes, whereas F1 from Senja salmon did not. F1 from Bothnian Sea salmon also reduced the number of T-cells in foetal mouse thymus anlagen in vitro compared with the cell number in anlagen exposed to F1 from Senja salmon. A positive correlation between EOCl concentration and test response was found for EROD activity in rainbow trout hepatocytes and for ATP-leakage in Erlich ascites tumour cells when testing the phospolipid containing fraction (F4). However, in most test systems the fish oils, irrespective of EOCl content, were of low toxicity, and the observed effects need to be verified in future studies.
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2.
  • Selin, Lotta, et al. (författare)
  • High-dose versus low-dose of oxytocin for labour augmentation : a randomised controlled trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Women and Birth. - : ELSEVIER. - 1871-5192 .- 1878-1799. ; 32:4, s. 356-363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Problem: Delayed labour progress is common in nulliparous women, often leading to caesarean section despite augmentation of labour with synthetic oxytocin.Background: High-or low-dose oxytocin can be used for augmentation of delayed labour, but evidence for promoting high-dose is weak.Aim: To ascertain the effect on caesarean section rate of high-dose versus low-dose oxytocin for augmentation of delayed labour in nulliparous women.Methods: Multicentre parallel double-blind randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01587625) in six labour wards in Sweden. Healthy nulliparous women at term with singleton cephalic fetal presentation, spontaneous labour onset, confirmed delay in labour and ruptured membranes (n = 1351) were randomised to labour augmentation with either high-dose (6.6 mU/minute) or low-dose (3.3 mU/minute) oxytocin infusion.Findings: 1295 women were included in intention-to-treat analysis (high-dose n = 647; low-dose n = 648). Caesarean section rates did not differ between groups (12.4% and 12.3%, 95% Confidence Interval -3.7 to 3.8). Women with high-dose oxytocin had: shorter labours (-23.4 min); more uterine tachysystole (43.2% versus 33.5%); similar rates of instrumental vaginal births, with more due to fetal distress (43.8% versus 22.7%) and fewer due to failure to progress (39.6% versus 58.8%). There were no differences in neonatal outcomes.Discussion: Our study could not confirm results of two systematic reviews indicating, with weak evidence, that use of high-dose oxytocin was associated with lower frequency of caesarean section.Conclusion: We found no advantages for routine use of high-dose oxytocin in the management of delay in labour. Low-dose oxytocin regimen is recommended to avoid unnecessary events of tachysystole and fetal distress. 
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3.
  • Arvidsson, Daniel, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • A Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationships of Physical Activity and Body Fat With Nerve Growth Factor and Brain-Derived Neural Factor in Children
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity & Health. - : Human Kinetics. - 1543-3080. ; 15:8, s. 620-625
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neural factor (BDNF) are important for brain function and detectable in the blood. This study explored the longitudinal associations of physical activity and body fat with serum NGF and BDNF in children. Methods: Two waves of measurements were performed 2 years apart in 8- to 11-year-old children, including physical activity using the ActiGraph model 7164, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum NGF and BDNF determined by multiplex immunoassay. The first wave included 248 children. Full information maximum likelihood estimation with robust standard errors was applied in structural equation modeling. Results: Vigorous physical activity showed a direct positive longitudinal relationship with NGF (standardized coefficient beta = 0.30, P = .01) but not with BDNF (beta = 0.04, P = .84). At the same time, body fat percentage was positively related to both NGF (beta = 0.59, P < .001) and BDNF (beta = 0.17, P = .04). There was an indication of an indirect relationship of vigorous physical activity with NGF (product of unstandardized coefficient beta = -0.18, P = .02) and BDNF (beta = -0.07, P = .05) through the negative relationship with body fat percentage (beta = -0.36, P < .001). Conclusions: Vigorous physical activity is directly related to serum NGF and indirectly through the level of body fat. The relationships with serum BDNF are more complex.
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4.
  • Daly, D., et al. (författare)
  • How much synthetic oxytocin is infused during labour? A review and analysis of regimens used in 12 countries
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 15:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To compare synthetic oxytocin infusion regimens used during labour, calculate the International Units (IU) escalation rate and total amount of IU infused over eight hours. Design Observational study Setting Twelve countries, eleven European and South Africa. Sample National, regional or institutional-level regimens on oxytocin for induction and augmentation labour Methods Data on oxytocin IU dose, infusion fluid amount, start dose, escalation rate and maximum dose were collected. Values for each regimen were converted to IU in 1000ml diluent. One IU corresponded to 1.67 mu g for doses provided in grams/micrograms. IU hourly dose increase rates were based on escalation frequency. Cumulative doses and total IU amount infused were calculated by adding the dose administered for each previous hour. Main Outcome Measures Oxytocin IU dose infused Results Data were obtained on 21 regimens used in 12 countries. Details on the start dose, escalation interval, escalation rate and maximum dose infused were available from 16 regimens. Starting rates varied from 0.06 IU/hour to 0.90 IU/hour, and the maximum dose rate varied from 0.90 IU/hour to 3.60 IU/hour. The total amount of IU oxytocin infused, estimated over eight hours, ranged from 2.38 IU to 27.00 IU, a variation of 24.62 IU and an 11-fold difference. Conclusion Current variations in oxytocin regimens for induction and augmentation of labour are inexplicable. It is crucial that the appropriate minimum infusion regimen is administered because synthetic oxytocin is a potentially harmful medication with serious consequences for women and babies when inappropriately used. Estimating the total amount of oxytocin IU received by labouring women, alongside the institution's mode of birth and neonatal outcomes, may deepen our understanding and be the way forward to identifying the optimal infusion regimen.
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5.
  • Detter, F., et al. (författare)
  • A Six-Year Exercise Program Improves Skeletal Traits without Affecting Fracture Risk - a Prospective Controlled Study in 2621 Children
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research. - : AMBMR. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 29:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most pediatric exercise intervention studies, that evaluates the effect on skeletal traits include volunteers and follow bone mass for less than three years. We present a population-based six-year controlled exercise intervention study in children with also bone structure and incident fractures as endpoints. Fractures were registered in 417 girls and 500 boys in the intervention group (3969 person-years) and 835 girls and 869 boys in the control group (8245 person-years), all aged 6-9 years at study start, during the six-year study period. Children in the intervention group had 40 minutes daily school physical education (PE) and the control group 60 minutes per week. In a sub-cohort with 78 girls and 111 boys in the intervention group and 52 girls and 54 boys in the control group, bone mineral density (g/cm2 ) and bone area (mm2 ) were measured repeatedly by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measured bone mass and bone structure at follow-up. There were 21.7 low and moderate energy related fractures per 1000 person-years in the intervention group and 19.8 fractures in the control group, leading to a Rate Ratio (RR) of 1.12 (0.85, 1.46). Girls in the intervention group, in comparison with girls in the control group, had 0.009 g/cm2 (0.003, 0.015) larger gain annually in spine BMD, 0.07 g (0.014, 0.123) larger gain in femoral neck BMC and 4.0 mm2 (0.5, 7.8) larger gain in femoral neck area, and at follow-up 24.1 g (7.6, 40.6) higher tibial cortical BMC (g) and 23.9 mm2 (5.27, 42.6) larger tibial cross-sectional area. Boys with daily PE had 0.006 g/cm2 (0.002, 0.010) larger gain annually in spine BMD than control boys but at follow-up no higher pQCT values than boys in the control group. Daily PE for six years in at study start 6-9 year old improves bone mass and bone size in girls and bone mass in boys, without affecting the fracture risk. (c) 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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6.
  • Gudmundsson, Petri, et al. (författare)
  • Head to head comparisons of two modalities of perfusion adenosine stress echocardiography with simultaneous SPECT
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Ultrasound. - : BioMed Central. - 1476-7120 .- 1476-7120. ; 7:19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Real-time perfusion (RTP) contrast echocardiography can be used during adenosine stress echocardiography (ASE) to evaluate myocardial ischemia. We compared two different types of RTP power modulation techniques, angiomode (AM) and high-resolution grayscale (HR), with 99mTc-tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the detection of myocardial ischemia. Methods: Patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), admitted to SPECT, were prospectively invited to participate. Patients underwent RTP imaging (SONOS 5500) using AM and HR during Sonovue® infusion, before and throughout the adenosine stress, also used for SPECT. Analysis of myocardial perfusion and wall motion by RTP-ASE were done for AM and HR at different time points, blinded to one another and to SPECT. Each segment was attributed to one of the three main coronary vessel areas of interest. Results: In 50 patients, 150 coronary areas were analyzed by SPECT and RTP-ASE AM and HR. SPECT showed evidence of ischemia in 13 out of 50 patients. There was no significant difference between AM and HR in detecting ischemia (p = 0.08). The agreement for AM and HR, compared to SPECT, was 93% and 96%, with Kappa values of 0.67 and 0.75, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between AM and HR in correctly detecting myocardial ischemia as judged by SPECT. This suggests that different types of RTP modalities give comparable data during RTP-ASE in patients with known or suspected CAD.
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7.
  • Gudmundsson, P, et al. (författare)
  • Parametric quantification of myocardial ischaemia using real-time perfusion adenosine stress echocardiography images, with SPECT as reference method.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. - : Wiley Online Library. - 1475-0961 .- 1475-097X. ; 30:1, s. 30-42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Summary Background: Real-time perfusion (RTP) adenosine stress echocardiography (ASE) can be used to visually evaluate myocardial ischaemia. The RTP power modulation technique, provides images for off-line parametric perfusion quantification using Qontrast((R)) software. From replenishment curves, this generates parametric images of peak signal intensity (A), myocardial blood flow velocity (beta) and myocardial blood flow (Axbeta) at rest and stress. This may be a tool for objective myocardial ischaemia evaluation. We assessed myocardial ischaemia by RTP-ASE Qontrast((R))-generated images, using 99mTc-tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as reference. Methods: Sixty-seven patients admitted to SPECT underwent RTP-ASE (SONOS 5500) during Sonovue((R)) infusion, before and throughout adenosine stress, also used for SPECT. Quantitative off-line analyses of myocardial perfusion by RTP-ASE Qontrast((R))-generated A, beta and Axbeta images, at different time points during rest and stress, were blindly compared to SPECT. Results: We analysed 201 coronary territories [corresponding to the left anterior descendent (LAD), left circumflex (LCx) and right coronary (RCA) arteries] from 67 patients. SPECT showed ischaemia in 18 patients. Receiver operator characteristics and kappa values showed that A, beta and Axbeta image interpretation significantly identified ischaemia in all territories (area under the curve 0.66-0.80, P = 0.001-0.05). Combined A, beta and Axbeta image interpretation gave the best results and the closest agreement was seen in the LAD territory: 89% accuracy; kappa 0.63; P<0.001. Conclusion: Myocardial isachemia can be evaluated in the LAD territory using RTP-ASE Qontrast((R))-generated images, especially by combined A, beta and Axbeta image interpretation. However, the technique needs improvements regarding the LCx and RCA territories.
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8.
  • Gudmundsson, Petri, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative detection of myocardial ischaemia by stress echocardiography; a comparison with SPECT
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Ultrasound. - : BioMed Central. - 1476-7120 .- 1476-7120. ; 7:28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Real-time perfusion (RTP) adenosine stress echocardiography (ASE) can be used to visually evaluate myocardial ischaemia. The RTP power modulation technique angio-mode (AM), provides images for off-line perfusion quantification using Qontrast® software, generating values of peak signal intensity (A), myocardial blood flow velocity (β) and myocardial blood flow (Axβ). By comparing rest and stress values, their respective reserve values (A-r, β-r, Axβ-r) are generated. We evaluated myocardial ischaemia by RTP-ASE Qontrast® quantification, compared to visual perfusion evaluation with 99mTc-tetrofosmin singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods and Results: Patients admitted to SPECT underwent RTP-ASE (SONOS 5500) using AM during Sonovue® infusion, before and throughout adenosine stress, also used for SPECT. Visual myocardial perfusion and wall motion analysis, and Qontrast® quantification, were blindly compared to one another and to SPECT, at different time points off-line. We analyzed 201 coronary territories (left anterior descendent [LAD], left circumflex [LCx] and right coronary [RCA] artery territories) in 67 patients. SPECT showed ischaemia in 18 patients and 19 territories. Receiver operator characteristics and kappa values showed significant agreement with SPECT only for β-r and Axβ-r in all segments: area under the curve 0.678 and 0.665; P < 0.001 and < 0.01, respectively. The closest agreements were seen in the LAD territory: kappa 0.442 for both β-r and Axβ- r; P < 0.01. Visual evaluation of ischaemia showed good agreement with SPECT: accuracy 93%; kappa 0.67; P < 0.001; without non-interpretable territories. Conclusion: In this agreement study with SPECT, RTP-ASE Qontrast® quantification of myocardial ischaemia was less accurate and less feasible than visual evaluation and needs further development to be clinically useful.
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9.
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10.
  • Lopez, A. Garcia, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of SenseWear Armband in children, adolescents, and adults
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0905-7188 .- 1600-0838. ; 28:2, s. 487-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SenseWear Armband (SW) is a multisensor monitor to assess physical activity and energy expenditure. Its prediction algorithms have been updated periodically. The aim was to validate SW in children, adolescents, and adults. The most recent SW algorithm 5.2 (SW5.2) and the previous version 2.2 (SW2.2) were evaluated for estimation of energy expenditure during semi-structured activities in 35 children, 31 adolescents, and 36 adults with indirect calorimetry as reference. Energy expenditure estimated from waist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ data (AG) was used for comparison. Improvements in measurement errors were demonstrated with SW5.2 compared to SW2.2, especially in children and for biking. The overall mean absolute percent error with SW5.2 was 24% in children, 23% in adolescents, and 20% in adults. The error was larger for sitting and standing (23%-32%) and for basketball and biking (19%-35%), compared to walking and running (8%-20%). The overall mean absolute error with AG was 28% in children, 22% in adolescents, and 28% in adults. The absolute percent error for biking was 32%-74% with AG. In general, SW and AG underestimated energy expenditure. However, both methods demonstrated a proportional bias, with increasing underestimation for increasing energy expenditure level, in addition to the large individual error. SW provides measures of energy expenditure level with similar accuracy in children, adolescents, and adults with the improvements in the updated algorithms. Although SW captures biking better than AG, these methods share remaining measurements errors requiring further improvements for accurate measures of physical activity and energy expenditure in clinical and epidemiological research.
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