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Sökning: WFRF:(Dennefeld M.)

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1.
  • Smartt, S. J., et al. (författare)
  • PESSTO : survey description and products from the first data release by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The Public European Southern Observatory Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO) began as a public spectroscopic survey in April 2012. PESSTO classifies transients from publicly available sources and wide-field surveys, and selects science targets for detailed spectroscopic and photometric follow-up. PESSTO runs for nine months of the year, January - April and August - December inclusive, and typically has allocations of 10 nights per month. Aims. We describe the data reduction strategy and data products that are publicly available through the ESO archive as the Spectroscopic Survey data release 1 (SSDR1). Methods. PESSTO uses the New Technology Telescope with the instruments EFOSC2 and SOFI to provide optical and NIR spectroscopy and imaging. We target supernovae and optical transients brighter than 20.5(m) for classification. Science targets are selected for follow-up based on the PESSTO science goal of extending knowledge of the extremes of the supernova population. We use standard EFOSC2 set-ups providing spectra with resolutions of 13-18 angstrom between 3345-9995 angstrom. A subset of the brighter science targets are selected for SOFI spectroscopy with the blue and red grisms (0.935-2.53 mu m and resolutions 23-33 angstrom) and imaging with broadband JHK(s) filters. Results. This first data release (SSDR1) contains flux calibrated spectra from the first year (April 2012-2013). A total of 221 confirmed supernovae were classified, and we released calibrated optical spectra and classifications publicly within 24 h of the data being taken (via WISeREP). The data in SSDR1 replace those released spectra. They have more reliable and quantifiable flux calibrations, correction for telluric absorption, and are made available in standard ESO Phase 3 formats. We estimate the absolute accuracy of the flux calibrations for EFOSC2 across the whole survey in SSDR1 to be typically similar to 15%, although a number of spectra will have less reliable absolute flux calibration because of weather and slit losses. Acquisition images for each spectrum are available which, in principle, can allow the user to refine the absolute flux calibration. The standard NIR reduction process does not produce high accuracy absolute spectrophotometry but synthetic photometry with accompanying JHK(s) imaging can improve this. Whenever possible, reduced SOFI images are provided to allow this. Conclusions. Future data releases will focus on improving the automated flux calibration of the data products. The rapid turnaround between discovery and classification and access to reliable pipeline processed data products has allowed early science papers in the first few months of the survey.
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2.
  • Smartt, S. J., et al. (författare)
  • A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 75-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers(1) and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova(2-5). The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate(6). Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short.-ray burst(7,8). The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 +/- 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 +/- 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 +/- 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.
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3.
  • Valenti, S., et al. (författare)
  • PESSTO spectroscopic classification of La Silla-Quest Transients
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • PESSTO is the "Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects" (http://www.pessto.org) using the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla and the EFOSC2 (optical) and SOFI (near-IR) spectrographs. It is one of two currently running public spectroscopic surveys at ESO. The survey details are as follows: - PESSTO has 90 nights per year on the NTT: 9 lunations (August to April), 10 nights per lunation (we are not observing May-July).
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4.
  • Penston, M. V., et al. (författare)
  • The extended narrow line region of NGC 4151. I. Emission line ratios and their implications
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 236:1, s. 53-6262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper presents the first results from long-slit spectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 which give average diagnostic ratios of weak lines in the extended narrow line region (ENLR) of that galaxy and the first direct density measurement in an ENLR. These data confirm that the ENLR is kinematically undisturbed gas in the disc of the galaxy which is illuminated by an ionizing continuum stronger by a factor of 13 than a power law interpolated between observed ultraviolet and X-ray fluxes. Explanations of this apparent excess include a hot thermal continuum, time variations and an anisotropic radiation field. The authors give reasons for favouring anisotropy which might be caused by shadowing by a thick accretion disc or by relativistic beaming. Shadowing by a molecular torus is unlikely, given the absence of an infrared signal from the reradiated flux absorbed by any torus. Anisotropy would have important implications for the bolometric luminosity and nature of active galactic nuclei
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5.
  • Smartt, S. J., et al. (författare)
  • Pan-STARRS and PESSTO search for an optical counterpart to the LIGO gravitational-wave source GW150914
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 462:4, s. 4094-4116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We searched for an optical counterpart to the first gravitational-wave source discovered by LIGO (GW150914), using a combination of the Pan-STARRS1 wide-field telescope and the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO) spectroscopic follow-up programme. As the final LIGO sky maps changed during analysis, the total probability of the source being spatially coincident with our fields was finally only 4.2 per cent. Therefore, we discuss our results primarily as a demonstration of the survey capability of Pan-STARRS and spectroscopic capability of PESSTO. We mapped out 442 deg(2) of the northern sky region of the initial map. We discovered 56 astrophysical transients over a period of 41 d from the discovery of the source. Of these, 19 were spectroscopically classified and a further 13 have host galaxy redshifts. All transients appear to be fairly normal supernovae (SNe) and AGN variability and none is obviously linked with GW150914. We illustrate the sensitivity of our survey by defining parametrized light curves with time-scales of 4, 20 and 40 d and use the sensitivity of the Pan-STARRS1 images to set limits on the luminosities of possible sources. The Pan-STARRS1 images reach limiting magnitudes of iP1 = 19.2, 20.0 and 20.8, respectively, for the three time-scales. For long time-scale parametrized light curves (with full width half-maximum similar or equal to 40 d), we set upper limits of M-i <= -17.2(+1.4)(-0.9) if the distance to GW150914 is D-L = 400 +/- 200 Mpc. The number of Type Ia SN we find in the survey is similar to that expected from the cosmic SN rate, indicating a reasonably complete efficiency in recovering SN like transients out to D-L = 400 +/- 200 Mpc.
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6.
  • Anderson, J. P., et al. (författare)
  • A nearby super-luminous supernova with a long pre-maximum plateau and strong C (II) features
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 620
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe) are rare events defined as being significantly more luminous than normal terminal stellar explosions. The source of the additional power needed to achieve such luminosities is still unclear. Discoveries in the local Universe (i.e. z < 0.1) are scarce, but afford dense multi-wavelength observations. Additional low-redshift objects are therefore extremely valuable.Aims. We present early-time observations of the type I SLSN ASASSN-18km/SN 2018bsz. These data are used to characterise the event and compare to literature SLSNe and spectral models. Host galaxy properties are also analysed.Methods. Optical and near-IR photometry and spectroscopy were analysed. Early-time ATLAS photometry was used to constrain the rising light curve. We identified a number of spectral features in optical-wavelength spectra and track their time evolution. Finally, we used archival host galaxy photometry together with H( II )region spectra to constrain the host environment.Results. ASASSN-18km/SN 2018bsz is found to be a type I SLSN in a galaxy at a redshift of 0.0267 (111 Mpc), making it the lowest-redshift event discovered to date. Strong C- II lines are identified in the spectra. Spectral models produced by exploding a Wolf-Rayet progenitor and injecting a magnetar power source are shown to be qualitatively similar to ASASSN-18km/SN 2018bsz, contrary to most SLSNe-I that display weak or non-existent C (II) lines. ASASSN-18km/SN 2018bsz displays along, slowly rising, red plateau of >26 days, before a steeper, faster rise to maximum. The host has an absolute magnitude of -19.8 mag (r), a mass of M-* = 1.5(-0.33)(+0.08) x 10(9) M-circle dot, and a star formation rate of =0.50(-0.19)(+2.22) M-circle dot yr(-1). A nearby H (II) region has an oxygen abundance (O3N2) of 8.31 +/- 0.01 dex.
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7.
  • Nicholl, M., et al. (författare)
  • On the diversity of superluminous supernovae : ejected mass as the dominant factor
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 452:4, s. 3869-3893
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We assemble a sample of 24 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Parameterizing the light-curve shape through rise and decline time-scales shows that the two are highly correlated. Magnetar-powered models can reproduce the correlation, with the diversity in rise and decline rates driven by the diffusion time-scale. Circumstellar interaction models can exhibit a similar rise-decline relation, but only for a narrow range of densities, which may be problematic for these models. We find that SLSNe are approximately 3.5 mag brighter and have light curves three times broader than SNe Ibc, but that the intrinsic shapes are similar. There are a number of SLSNe with particularly broad light curves, possibly indicating two progenitor channels, but statistical tests do not cleanly separate two populations. The general spectral evolution is also presented. Velocities measured from Fe II are similar for SLSNe and SNe Ibc, suggesting that diffusion time differences are dominated by mass or opacity. Flat velocity evolution in most SLSNe suggests a dense shell of ejecta. If opacities in SLSNe are similar to other SNe Ibc, the average ejected mass is higher by a factor 2-3. Assuming. = 0.1 cm(2) g(-1), we estimate a mean (median) SLSN ejecta mass of 10 M-circle dot (6 M-circle dot), with a range of 3-30 M-circle dot. Doubling the assumed opacity brings the masses closer to normal SNe Ibc, but with a high-mass tail. The most probable mechanism for generating SLSNe seems to be the core collapse of a very massive hydrogen-poor star, forming a millisecond magnetar.
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8.
  • Benetti, S., et al. (författare)
  • The supernova CSS121015:004244+132827 : a clue for understanding superluminous supernovae
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 441:1, s. 289-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present optical photometry and spectra of the superluminous Type II/IIn supernova (SN) CSS121015: 004244+132827 (z = 0.2868) spanning epochs from -30 d (rest frame) to more than 200 d after maximum. CSS121015 is one of the more luminous SNe ever found and one of the best observed. The photometric evolution is characterized by a relatively fast rise to maximum (similar to 40 d in the SN rest frame), and by a linear post-maximum decline. The light curve shows no sign of a break to an exponential tail. A broad Ha is first detected at similar to+40 d (rest frame). Narrow, barely resolved Balmer and [O III] 5007 angstrom lines, with decreasing strength, are visible along the entire spectral evolution. The spectra are very similar to other superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) with hydrogen in their spectrum, and also to SN 2005gj, sometimes considered Type Ia interacting with H-rich circumstellar medium. The spectra are also similar to a subsample of H-deficient SLSNe. We propose that the properties of CSS121015 are consistent with the interaction of the ejecta with a massive, extended, opaque shell, lost by the progenitor decades before the final explosion, although a magnetar-powered model cannot be excluded. Based on the similarity of CSS121015 with other SLSNe (with and without H), we suggest that the shocked-shell scenario should be seriously considered as a plausible model for both types of SLSN.
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9.
  • Smartt, S. J., et al. (författare)
  • A SEARCH FOR AN OPTICAL COUNTERPART TO THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE EVENT GW151226
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 827:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a search for an electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational-wave source GW151226. Using the Pan-STARRS1 telescope we mapped out 290 square degrees in the optical i(P1) filter, starting 11.5 hr after the LIGO information release and lasting for an additional 28 days. The first observations started 49.5 hr after the time of the GW151226 detection. We typically reached sensitivity limits of i(P1) = 20.3-20.8 and covered 26.5% of the LIGO probability skymap. We supplemented this with ATLAS survey data, reaching 31% of the probability region to shallower depths of m similar or equal to 19. We found 49 extragalactic transients (that are not obviously active galactic nuclei), including a faint transient in a galaxy at 7 Mpc (a luminous blue variable outburst) plus a rapidly decaying M-dwarf flare. Spectral classification of 20 other transient events showed them all to be supernovae. We found an unusual transient, PS15dpn, with an explosion date temporally coincident with GW151226, that evolved into a type Ibn supernova. The redshift of the transient is secure at z = 0.1747 +/- 0.0001 and we find it unlikely to be linked, since the luminosity distance has a negligible probability of being consistent with that of GW151226. In the 290 square degrees surveyed we therefore do not find a likely counterpart. However we show that our survey strategy would be sensitive to NS-NS mergers producing kilonovae at D-L less than or similar to 100 Mpc, which is promising for future LIGO/Virgo searches.
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10.
  • Goobar, Ariel, et al. (författare)
  • THE RISE OF SN 2014J IN THE NEARBY GALAXY M82
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 784:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the discovery of SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82. Given its proximity, it offers the best opportunity to date to study a thermonuclear supernova (SN) over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical, near-IR, and mid-IR observations on the rising light curve, orchestrated by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, show that SN 2014J is a spectroscopically normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), albeit exhibiting high-velocity features in its spectrum and heavily reddened by dust in the host galaxy. Our earliest detections start just hours after the fitted time of explosion. We use high-resolution optical spectroscopy to analyze the dense intervening material and do not detect any evolution in the resolved absorption features during the light curve rise. Similar to other highly reddened SNe Ia, a low value of total-to-selective extinction, R-V less than or similar to 2, provides the best match to our observations. We also study pre-explosion optical and near-IR images from Hubble Space Telescope with special emphasis on the sources nearest to the SN location.
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