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Sökning: WFRF:(Devereux Richard B.)

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1.
  • Wormser, David, et al. (författare)
  • Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people : individual participant meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 41:5, s. 1419-1433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain.MethodsWe calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual-participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies.ResultsFor people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5-1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93-0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03-1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90-0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12-1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80-0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators.ConclusionAdult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
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2.
  • Teo, Koon K., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of telmisartan, irbesartan, valsartan, candesartan, and losartan on cancers in 15 trials enrolling 138 769 individuals The ARB Trialists Collaboration
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - 0263-6352. ; 29:4, s. 623-635
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but a recent meta-analysis of selected studies suggested that ARBs may increase cancer risks.Objective Candesartan, irbesartan, telmisartan, valsartan, and losartan were assessed for incident cancers in 15 large parallel long-term multicenter double-blind clinical trials of these agents involving 138 769 participants.Patients and methods Individuals at high CVD risk were randomized to telmisartan (three trials, n=51 878), irbesartan (three trials, n=14 859), valsartan (four trials, n=44 264), candesartan (four trials, n=18 566), and losartan (one trial, n=9193) and followed for 23-60 months. Incident cancer cases were compared in patients randomized to ARBs versus controls. In five trials (n=42 403), the ARBs were compared to ACEi and in 11 trials (n=63 313) to controls without ACEi. In addition, in seven trials (n=47 020), the effect of ARBs with ACEi was compared to ACEi alone and in two trials ARBs with ACEi versus ARB alone (n=25 712).Results Overall, there was no excess of cancer incidence with ARB therapy compared to controls in the 15 trials [ 4549 (6.16%) cases of 73 808 allocated to ARB versus 3856 (6.31%) of 61 106 assigned to non-ARB controls; odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-1.04] overall or when individual ARBs were examined. ORs comparing combination therapy with ARB along with ACEi versus ACEi was 1.01 (95% CI 0.94-1.10), combination versus ARB alone 1.02 (95% CI 0.91-1.13), ARB alone versus ACEi alone 1.06 (95% CI 0.97-1.16) and ARB versus placebo/control without ACEi 0.97 (95% CI 0.91-1.04). There was no excess of lung, prostate or breast cancer, or overall cancer deaths associated with ARB treatment.Conclusion There was no significant increase in the overall or site-specific cancer risk from ARBs compared to controls.
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3.
  • Bang, Casper N., et al. (författare)
  • Antihypertensive treatment with β-blockade in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis and association with cardiovascular events
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association : Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 2047-9980. ; 6:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Patients with aortic stenosis (AS) often have concomitant hypertension. Antihypertensive treatment with a beta-blocker (Bbl) is frequently avoided because of fear of depression of left ventricular function. However, it remains unclear whether antihypertensive treatment with a Bbl is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate AS.Methods and results: We did a post hoc analysis of 1873 asymptomatic patients with mild to moderate AS and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in the SEAS (Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis) study. Propensity-matched Cox regression and competing risk analyses were used to assess risk ratios for all-cause mortality, sudden cardiac death, and cardiovascular death. A total of 932 (50%) patients received Bbl at baseline. During a median follow-up of 4.3 +/- 0.9 years, 545 underwent aortic valve replacement, and 205 died; of those, 101 were cardiovascular deaths, including 40 sudden cardiovascular deaths. In adjusted analyses, Bbl use was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.7, P<0.001), cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.7, P<0.001), and sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.6, P=0.004). This was confirmed in competing risk analyses (all P<0.004). No interaction was detected with AS severity (all P>0.1).Conclusions: In post hoc analyses Bbl therapy did not increase the risk of all-cause mortality, sudden cardiac death, or cardiovascular death in patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate AS. A prospective study may be warranted to determine if Bbl therapy is in fact beneficial.
4.
  • Bang, Casper N., et al. (författare)
  • Renin-angiotensin system inhibition is not associated with increased sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular mortality or all-cause mortality in patients with aortic stenosis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273. ; 175:3, s. 492-498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Renin-angiotensin system inhibition (RASI) is frequently avoided in aortic stenosis (AS) patients because of fear of hypotension. We evaluated if RASI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) increased mortality in patients with mild to moderate AS. Methods: All patients (n = 1873) from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study: asymptomatic patients with AS and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction were included. Risks of sudden cardiac death (SCD), cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality according to RASI treatment were analyzed by multivariable time-varying Cox models and propensity score matched analyses. Results: 769 (41%) patients received RASI. During a median follow-up of 4.3 +/- 0.9 years, 678 patients were categorized as having severe AS, 545 underwent aortic valve replacement, 40 SCDs, 103 cardiovascular and 205 all-cause deaths occurred. RASI was not associated with SCD (HR: 1.19 [95% CI: 0.50-2.83], p = 0.694), cardiovascular (HR: 1.05 [95% CI: 0.62-1.77], p = 0.854) or all-cause mortality (HR: 0.81 [95% CI: 0.55-1.20], p = 0.281). This was confirmed in propensity matched analysis (all p > 0.05). In separate analyses, RASI was associated with larger reduction in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.001) and less progression of LV mass (p = 0.040). Conclusions: RASI was not associated with SCD, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in asymptomatic AS patients. However, RASI was associated with a potentially beneficial decrease in blood pressure and reduced LV mass progression. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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5.
  • de Simone, Giovanni, et al. (författare)
  • Body build and risk of cardiovascular events in hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE (Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension) study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 1524-4539 (Electronic). ; 111:15, s. 1924-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Obesity may independently increase the risk of adverse events in hypertension with target-organ damage. We investigated whether body build was independently associated with higher cardiovascular risk and whether treatment with losartan relative to atenolol influenced the impact of body build on the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction and on cardiovascular death in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study. METHODS AND RESULTS: The population of 9079 patients was divided as follows: thin (body mass index [BMI] <20 kg/m2, 2%), normal weight (BMI 20 to 24.9, 24%), overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9, 45%), and obese (class I: BMI 30 to 34.9, 21%; class II: BMI 35 to 39.9, 6%; class III: BMI > or =40, 2%). Incident diabetes increased progressively with BMI and was somewhat higher in the atenolol arm. Differences in gender and race were detected among the body build groups. Rates (Cox proportional hazard analysis) of the primary composite end point did not differ among body build groups after adjustment for age, gender, race, smoking habit, prevalent cardiovascular disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Cardiovascular death was more frequent among thin (P<0.05) and pooled class II-III obesity (both P<0.04) than normal-weight groups. Risk was not attenuated significantly by losartan treatment, nor did it interfere with the greater benefit of losartan- as opposed to atenolol-based treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In the LIFE study, stratification for classes of body build identified increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in both thin and moderately-to-severely obese individuals. This risk was not attenuated significantly by losartan treatment, nor did it interfere with the greater benefit of losartan-based treatment as opposed to atenolol-based treatment.
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6.
  • Devereux, Richard B, et al. (författare)
  • Blood pressure reduction and antihypertensive medication use in the losartan intervention for endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Curr Med Res Opin. - 1473-4877 (Electronic). ; 23:2, s. 259-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To compare blood pressure response and antihypertensive medication use visit-by-visit from baseline in patients receiving losartan-based or atenolol-based therapy in the LIFE study. RESEARCH DESIGN: LIFE was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing losartan-based and atenolol-based treatment regimens on the primary composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in 9193 patients aged 55-80 years with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Systolic and diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial pressures, blood pressure responder rates, distribution of open-label antihypertensive agents utilized, and the proportion of patients on randomized treatment were determined for each group at each clinic visit over a follow-up period of at least 4 years. RESULTS: Overall blood pressure reductions were comparable in the losartan-based and atenolol-based treatment groups. The mean reductions in sitting trough systolic and diastolic blood pressures from baseline to the end of follow-up (or last visit before a primary endpoint event) were 30.2/16.6 mmHg in the losartan group and 29.1/16.8 mmHg in the atenolol group. The time-averaged difference in overall mean arterial pressure was similar between groups. The proportion of patients on individual dose combinations varied visit by visit but was generally comparable between groups. During the entire study, 56% (2579/4605) of losartan-treated patients received at least one dose of the combination of losartan 100 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg and 51% of atenolol-treated patients received 100 mg of atenolol plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg at some time during the study. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in blood pressure or distribution of add-on medications between treatment groups were not evident in the LIFE trial and, thus, cannot account for the observed outcome difference in the primary endpoint of risk reduction of the composite of cardiovascular death, stroke and MI favoring losartan.
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7.
  • Eijkelkamp, Wouter B A, et al. (författare)
  • Renal function and risk for cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension: the RENAAL and LIFE studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: J Hypertens. - 0263-6352 (Print). ; 25:4, s. 871-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a threshold exists for cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension, the association between renal function and cardiovascular risk was examined across the entire physiological range of serum creatinine. DESIGN AND METHODS: The RENAAL and LIFE studies enrolled 1513 and 1195 patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, respectively. The relationship between baseline serum creatinine and the risk for a composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death was examined using Cox regression models. To adjust for heterogeneity between studies and treatment groups, these factors were included as strata when applicable. The analyses were conducted with adjustment for age, gender, smoking, alcohol use, blood pressure, heart rate, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hemoglobin, albuminuria and prior cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: The hazard ratios across the baseline serum creatinine categories < 0.9 mg/dl, 0.9-1.2 mg/dl, 1.2-1.6 mg/dl, 1.6-2.8 mg/dl and >or= 2.8 mg/dl were 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.34, 0.74), 0.74 (0.55, 1.00), 1.00 (reference), 1.24 (0.96, 1.59) and 1.67 (1.17, 2.91), respectively. Baseline serum creatinine (per mg/dl) strongly predicted the composite cardiovascular endpoint in LIFE [2.82(1.74,4.56), P < 0.001], RENAAL [1.41(1.12,1.79), P < 0.001], as well as the combined studies [1.51(1.21,1.87), P < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: A progressively higher risk for the composite cardiovascular endpoint was observed with incremental baseline serum creatinine in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension, even within the normal range. Thus, there appears to be no serum creatinine threshold level for an increased cardiovascular risk. Baseline serum creatinine was a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (www.ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00308347).
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8.
  • Fossum, Eigil, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of losartan versus atenolol on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with hypertension taking aspirin: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Am Coll Cardiol. - 0735-1097 (Print). ; 46:5, s. 770-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We conducted a subgroup analysis in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study to determine whether aspirin interacted with the properties of losartan, an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist. BACKGROUND: Negative interactions between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and aspirin have been reported. There are no data reported from clinical trials about possible interactions between angiotensin-II receptor antagonists and aspirin. METHODS: The LIFE study assigned 9,193 patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) to losartan- or atenolol-based therapy for a mean of 4.7 years, with 1,970 (21.4%) taking aspirin at baseline. The primary composite end point (CEP) included cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI). The present cohort was stratified by aspirin use at baseline. RESULTS: Blood pressures were reduced similarly in the losartan with aspirin (n = 1,004) and atenolol with aspirin (n = 966) groups. The CEP was reduced by 32% (95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.86, p = 0.001) with losartan with aspirin compared to atenolol with aspirin, adjusted for Framingham risk score and LVH. The test for treatment versus aspirin interaction, excluding other covariates, was significant for the CEP (p = 0.016) and MI (p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: There was a statistical interaction between treatment and aspirin in the LIFE study, with significantly greater reductions for the CEP and MI with losartan in patients using aspirin than in patients not using aspirin at baseline. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this represents a pharmacologic interaction or a selection by aspirin use of patients more likely to respond to losartan treatment.
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9.
  • Fyhrquist, Frej, et al. (författare)
  • Pulse pressure and effects of losartan or atenolol in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 1524-4563 (Electronic). ; 45:4, s. 580-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study, the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction was reduced by losartan versus atenolol in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to determine the influence of pulse pressure on outcome. Patients were divided into quartiles of baseline pulse pressure. Cox regression, including baseline Framingham risk score as a covariate, was used to compare risk in the quartiles. In the atenolol group, there were significantly higher risks in the highest versus lowest quartile for the composite end point 28% (confidence interval [CI], 2% to 62%; P=0.035), stroke 84% (CI, 32% to 157%; P<0.001), and total mortality 41% (CI, 7% to 84%; P=0.013). Risk for myocardial infarction was 44% higher (CI, -5% to 120%; P=0.089). The risks in the losartan group also increased with increasing quartile, but were lower than in the atenolol group, and differences between the highest and lowest quartiles were not significant: composite end point 12% (CI, -13% to 44%; P>0.2), stroke -5% (CI, -34% to 37%; P>0.2), myocardial infarction 30% (CI, -13% to 94%; P>0.2), and total mortality 32% (CI, -1% to 76%; P=0.062). In patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in the LIFE study, there were significantly higher risks, adjusted for the Framingham risk score, for the primary composite end point, stroke, and total mortality in the highest versus lowest quartile of pulse pressure with atenolol-based treatment. The risks in the losartan group also increased with increasing pulse pressure quartile, but were lower than those in the atenolol group, and were not significant.
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10.
  • Greve, Anders M., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical Implications of Electrocardiographic Left Ventricular Strain and Hypertrophy in Asymptomatic Patients With Aortic Stenosis The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis Study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. - 1524-4539. ; 125:2, s. 346-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-The prognostic impact of ECG left ventricular strain and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in asymptomatic aortic stenosis is not well described. Methods and Results-Data were obtained in asymptomatic patients randomized to simvastatin/ezetimibe combination versus placebo in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. Primary end point was the first of myocardial infarction, nonhemorrhagic stroke, heart failure, aortic valve replacement, or cardiovascular death. The predictive value of ECG left ventricular strain (defined as T-wave inversion in leads V(4) through V(6)) and LVH, assessed by Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria (R(V5-6) +/- S(V1) >= 35 mV) and Cornell voltage-duration criteria {[RaVL + S(V3) + (6 mV in women)] x QRS duration >= 2440 mV.ms}, was evaluated by adjustment for other prognostic covariates. A total of 1533 patients were followed for 4.3 +/- 0.8 years (6592 patient-years of follow-up), and 627 cardiovascular events occurred. ECG strain was present in 340 patients (23.6%), with LVH by Sokolow-Lyon voltage in 260 (17.1%) and by Cornell voltage-duration product in 220 (14.6%). In multivariable analyses, ECG left ventricular strain was associated with 3.1-fold higher risk of in-study myocardial infarction (95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.8; P = 0.004). Similarly, ECG LVH by both criteria predicted, compared with no ECG LVH, 5.8-fold higher risk of heart failure (95% confidence interval, 2.0 -16.8), 2.0-fold higher risk of aortic valve replacement (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.1; both P = 0.001), and 2.5-fold higher risk of a combined end point of myocardial infarction, heart failure, or cardiovascular death (95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.9; P = 0.008). Conclusions-ECG left ventricular strain and LVH were independently predictive of poor prognosis in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis.
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