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1.
  • Bixby, H., et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities 1,2 . This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity 3–6 . Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017—and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions—was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing—and in some countries reversal—of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
2.
  • Abolins, M., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.</p>
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3.
  • Ederle, Joerg, et al. (författare)
  • Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 375:9719, s. 985-997
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4.0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3.2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.28, 95% CI 0.77-2.11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8.5% in the stenting group compared with 5.2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events; HR 1.69, 1.16-2.45, p=0.006), Risks of any stroke (65 vs 35 events; HR 1.92, 1.27-2.89) and all-cause death (19 vs seven events; HR 2.76, 1.16-6.56) were higher in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group. Three procedural myocardial infarctions were recorded in the stenting group, all of which were fatal, compared with four, all non-fatal, in the endarterectomy group. There was one event of cranial nerve palsy in the stenting group compared with 45 in the endarterectomy group. There were also fewer haematomas of any severity in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group (31 vs 50 events; p=0.0197). Interpretation Completion of long-term follow-up is needed to establish the efficacy of carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy. In the meantime, carotid endarterectomy should remain the treatment of choice for patients suitable for surgery.
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4.
  • Abdesselam, A., et al. (författare)
  • Engineering for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) end-cap
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon-strip tracking detector which forms part of the ATLAS inner detector. The SCT is designed to track charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN at an energy of 14 TeV. The tracker is made up of a central barrel and two identical end-caps. The barrel contains 2112 silicon modules, while each end-cap contains 988 modules. The overall tracking performance depends not only on the intrinsic measurement precision of the modules but also on the characteristics of the whole assembly, in particular, the stability and the total material budget. This paper describes the engineering design and construction of the SCT end-caps, which are required to support mechanically the silicon modules, supply services to them and provide a suitable environment within the inner detector. Critical engineering choices are highlighted and innovative solutions are presented - these will be of interest to other builders of large-scale tracking detectors. The SCT end-caps will be fully connected at the start of 2008. Further commissioning will continue, to be ready for proton-proton collision data in 2008.</p>
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5.
  • Abate, E., et al. (författare)
  • Combined performance tests before installation of the ATLAS Semiconductor and Transition Radiation Tracking Detectors
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) Inner Detector provides charged particle tracking in the centre of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Inner Detector consists of three subdetectors: the Pixel Detector, the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT), and the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). This paper summarizes the tests that were carried out at the final stage of SCT+TRT integration prior to their installation in ATLAS. The combined operation and performance of the SCT and TRT barrel and endcap detectors was investigated through a series of noise tests, and by recording the tracks of cosmic rays. This was a crucial test of hardware and software of the combined tracker detector systems. The results of noise and cross-talk tests on the SCT and TRT in their final assembled configuration, using final readout and supply hardware and software, are reported. The reconstruction and analysis of the recorded cosmic tracks allowed testing of the offline analysis chain and verification of basic tracker performance parameters, such as efficiency and spatial resolution, in combined operation before installation.
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6.
  • Abat, E., et al. (författare)
  • A layer correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of energy deposits in the calorimeter layers, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20 GeV and 180 GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by between 11% and 25% compared to the resolution at the electromagnetic scale.
7.
  • Abat, E., et al. (författare)
  • Combined performance studies for electrons at the 2004 ATLAS combined test-beam
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed.
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8.
  • Abat, E., et al. (författare)
  • Combined performance studies for electrons at the 2004 ATLAS combined test-beam
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - Institute of Physics (IOP). - 1748-0221. ; 5, s. P11006
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed.</p>
  •  
9.
  • Abat, E., et al. (författare)
  • Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.
10.
  • Abat, E., et al. (författare)
  • Study of the response of the ATLAS central calorimeter to pions of energies from 3 to 9 GeV
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 607:2, s. 372-386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A fully instrumented slice of the ATLAS central detector was exposed to test beams from the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN in 2004. in this paper, the response of the central calorimeters to pions with energies in the range between 3 and 9 GeV is presented. The linearity and the resolution of the combined calorimetry (electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters) was measured and compared to the prediction of a detector simulation program using the toolkit Geant 4. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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