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  • Dunning, Alison M, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer risk variants at 6q25 display different phenotype associations and regulate ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170.
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyzed 3,872 common genetic variants across the ESR1 locus (encoding estrogen receptor α) in 118,816 subjects from three international consortia. We found evidence for at least five independent causal variants, each associated with different phenotype sets, including estrogen receptor (ER(+) or ER(-)) and human ERBB2 (HER2(+) or HER2(-)) tumor subtypes, mammographic density and tumor grade. The best candidate causal variants for ER(-) tumors lie in four separate enhancer elements, and their risk alleles reduce expression of ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170, whereas the risk alleles of the strongest candidates for the remaining independent causal variant disrupt a silencer element and putatively increase ESR1 and RMND1 expression.
  • Johnson, Nichola, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411. ; 16:3, s. R51-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age <= 50 years. Methods: We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. Results: We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (P-trend = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (P-trend = 0.005) but not cases (P-trend = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (P-het = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age >= 15 years (ORhet = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; ORhom = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; P-trend = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age <= 11 years (ORhet = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, ORhom = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; P-trend = 0.29). Conclusions: To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at menarche and a reduction in breast cancer risk. These associations are likely mediated via an effect on circulating hormone levels.
  • Lundgren, K., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of cyclin D-1 gene amplification and protein expression on time to recurrence in postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with anastrozole or tamoxifen: a TransATAC study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-542X .- 1465-5411. ; 14:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Gene amplification of CCND1 is observed in a subgroup of breast cancers with poor prognosis, whereas overexpression of the protein cyclin D-1 has been linked to both worse and better clinical outcome. CCND1 amplification and protein overexpression have also been associated with resistance to treatment with tamoxifen or even to a potentially detrimental effect of tamoxifen. Methods: To clarify these challenging and partly contrasting treatment predictive and prognostic links for cyclin D-1 we analysed a large cohort of postmenopausal breast cancer patients randomised to receive either adjuvant anastrozole or tamoxifen, as part of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial. The CCND1 amplification status and protein expression of cyclin D-1 were assessed by chromogenic in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in 1,155 postmenopausal, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer patients included in the TransATAC substudy. Results: Amplification of CCND1 was observed in 8.7% of the tumours and was associated with increased risk of disease recurrence (hazard ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 2.41) after adjustment for other clinicopathological parameters. In contrast, nuclear expression of cyclin D-1 protein was associated with decreased recurrence rate (hazard ratio = 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.92). The intensity of nuclear or cytoplasmic expression was not of prognostic value. There was no significant interaction between cyclin D-1 status and treatment efficacy, ruling out any major detrimental effect of tamoxifen in CCND1-amplified postmenopausal breast cancer. Conclusions: In summary, CCND1 amplification and low nuclear expression of cyclin D-1 predicted poor clinical outcome in postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with either anastrozole or tamoxifen.
  • Buus, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Novel 18-gene signature for predicting relapse in ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several prognostic signatures for early oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer have been established with a 10-year follow-up. We tested the hypothesis that signatures optimised for 0-5-year and 5-10-year follow-up separately are more prognostic than a single signature optimised for 10 years. Methods: Genes previously identified as prognostic or associated with endocrine resistance were tested in publicly available microarray data set using Cox regression of 747 ER+/HER2- samples from post-menopausal patients treated with 5 years of endocrine therapy. RNA expression of the selected genes was assayed in primary ER+/HER2- tumours from 948 post-menopausal patients treated with 5 years of anastrozole or tamoxifen in the TransATAC cohort. Prognostic signatures for 0-10, 0-5 and 5-10 years were derived using a penalised Cox regression (elastic net). Signature comparison was performed with likelihood ratio statistics. Validation was done by a case-control (POLAR) study in 422 samples derived from a cohort of 1449. Results: Ninety-three genes were selected by the modelling of microarray data; 63 of these were significantly prognostic in TransATAC, most similarly across each time period. Contrary to our hypothesis, the derived early and late signatures were not significantly more prognostic than the 18-gene 10-year signature. The 18-gene 10-year signature was internally validated in the TransATAC validation set, showing prognostic information similar to that of Oncotype DX Recurrence Score, PAM50 risk of recurrence score, Breast Cancer Index and IHC4 (score based on four IHC markers), as well as in the external POLAR case-control set. Conclusions: The derived 10-year signature predicts risk of metastasis in patients with ER+/HER2- breast cancer similar to commercial signatures. The hypothesis that early and late prognostic signatures are significantly more informative than a single signature was rejected.
  • Klintman, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in expression of genes representing key biologic processes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer, and prognostic implications in residual disease
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 22:10, s. 2405-2416
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The primary aim was to derive evidence for or against the clinical importance of several biologic processes in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) by assessing expression of selected genes with prior implications in prognosis or treatment resistance. The secondary aim was to determine the prognostic impact in residual disease of the genes' expression. Experimental Design: Expression levels of 24 genes were quantified by NanoString nCounter on formalin-fixed paraffinembedded residual tumors from 126 patients treated with NAC and 56 paired presurgical biopsies. The paired t test was used for testing changes in gene expression, and Cox regression and penalized elastic-net Cox Regression for estimating HRs. Results: After NAC, 12 genes were significantly up- and 8 downregulated. Fourteen genes were significantly associated with time to recurrence in univariable analysis in residual disease. In a multivariable model, ACACB, CD3D, MKI67, and TOP2A added prognostic value independent of clinical ER-, PgR-, and HER2- status. In ER+/HER2- patients, ACACB, PAWR, and ERBB2 predicted outcome, whereas CD3D and PAWR were prognostic in ER-/HER2- patients. By use of elastic-net analysis, a 6-gene signature (ACACB, CD3D, DECORIN, ESR1, MKI67, PLAU) was identified adding prognostic value independent of ER, PgR, and HER2. Conclusions: Most of the tested genes were significantly enriched or depleted in response to NAC. Expression levels of genes representing proliferation, stromal activation, metabolism, apoptosis, stemcellness, immunologic response, and Ras-ERK activation predicted outcome in residual disease. Themultivariable gene models identified could, if validated, be used to identify patients needing additional post-neoadjuvant treatment to improve prognosis.
  • Lawler, Katherine, et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression modules in primary breast cancers as risk factors for organotropic patterns of first metastatic spread : A case control study
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Metastases from primary breast cancers can involve single or multiple organs at metastatic disease diagnosis. Molecular risk factors for particular patterns of metastastic spread in a clinical population are limited. Methods: A case-control design including 1357 primary breast cancers was used to study three distinct clinical patterns of metastasis, which occur within the first six months of metastatic disease: bone and visceral metasynchronous spread, bone-only, and visceral-only metastasis. Whole-genome expression profiles were obtained using whole genome (WG)-DASL assays from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. A systematic protocol was developed for handling FFPE samples together with stringent data quality controls to identify robust expression profiling data. A panel of published and novel gene sets were tested for association with these specific patterns of metastatic spread and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. Results: Metasynchronous metastasis to bone and viscera was found in all intrinsic breast cancer subtypes, while immunohistochemically (IHC)-defined receptor status and specific IntClust subgroups were risk factors for visceral-only or bone-only first metastases. Among gene modules, those related to proliferation increased the risk of metasynchronous metastasis (OR (95% CI)-=-2.3 (1.1-4.8)) and visceral-only first metastasis (OR (95% CI)-=-2.5 (1.2-5.1)) but not bone-only metastasis (OR (95% CI)-=-0.97 (0.56-1.7)). A 21-gene module (BV) was identified in estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancers with metasynchronous metastasis to bone and viscera (area under the curve-=-0.77), and its expression increased the risk of bone and visceral metasynchronous spread in this population. BV was further orthogonally validated with NanoString nCounter in primary breast cancers, and was reproducible in their matched lymph nodes metastases and an external cohort. Conclusion: This case-control study of WG-DASL global expression profiles from FFPE tumour samples, after careful quality control and RNA selection, revealed that gene modules in the primary tumour have differing risks for clinical patterns of metasynchronous first metastases. Moreover, a novel gene module was identified as a putative risk factor for metasynchronous bone and visceral first metastatic spread, with potential implications for disease monitoring and treatment planning.
  • Leung, Samuel CY, et al. (författare)
  • Analytical validation of a standardized scoring protocol for Ki67 immunohistochemistry on breast cancer excision whole sections: an international multicenter collaboration
  • Ingår i: Histopathology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0309-0167. ; 75:2, s. 225-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The nuclear proliferation marker Ki67 assayed by immunohistochemistry has multiple potential uses in breast cancer, but an unacceptable level of interlaboratory variability has hampered its clinical utility. The International Ki67 in Breast Cancer Working Group has undertaken a systematic programme to determine whether Ki67 measurement can be analytically validated and standardised among laboratories. This study addresses whether acceptable scoring reproducibility can be achieved on excision whole sections.Methods and results: Adjacent sections from 30 primary ER+ breast cancers were centrally stained for Ki67 and sections were circulated among 23 pathologists in 12 countries. All pathologists scored Ki67 by two methods: (i) global: four fields of 100 tumour cells each were selected to reflect observed heterogeneity in nuclear staining; (ii) hot‐spot: the field with highest apparent Ki67 index was selected and up to 500 cells scored. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the global method [confidence interval (CI) = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.799–0.93] marginally met the prespecified success criterion (lower 95% CI ≥ 0.8), while the ICC for the hot‐spot method (0.83; 95% CI = 0.74–0.90) did not. Visually, interobserver concordance in location of selected hot‐spots varies between cases. The median times for scoring were 9 and 6 min for global and hot‐spot methods, respectively.Conclusions: The global scoring method demonstrates adequate reproducibility to warrant next steps towards evaluation for technical and clinical validity in appropriate cohorts of cases. The time taken for scoring by either method is practical using counting software we are making publicly available. Establishment of external quality assessment schemes is likely to improve the reproducibility between laboratories further.
  • Nielsen, Torsten O, et al. (författare)
  • Abstract P2-03-01: Analytical validation of a standardized scoring protocol for Ki67 assessed on breast excision whole sections: An international multicenter collaboration
  • Ingår i: San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, 2017,San Antonio, United States,2017-12-05 - 2017-12-09. - : American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. ; 78:4
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: (i) Determine whether between-observer reproducibility for Ki67 when assessed on whole sections according to a standardized scoring protocol is adequate for clinical application. (ii) Compare between-observer reproducibility of Ki67 scores assessed on hot-spots to scores using a global method that averages across a tissue section.Background: The nuclear proliferation biomarker Ki67 has multiple potential roles in breast cancer, including aiding decisions based on prognosis, but unacceptable levels of between-laboratory variability have been observed. The International Ki67 in Breast Cancer Working Group has undertaken a systematic program to determine whether Ki67 measurement can be analytically validated and standardized across labs. In phase 1, variability in visual interpretation was identified as an important source of variability. Phases 2 and 3a showed that adherence to defined scoring methods substantially improved reproducibility in scoring tissue microarrays and core-cut biopsies. We now assess whether acceptable reproducibility can be achieved on whole sections.Methods: Adjacent sections from 30 primary ER+ breast cancers were centrally stained for Ki67 to assemble 4 sets of 30 stained tumor sections, circulated around 23 labs in 12 countries. Ki67 was scored by 2 methods by all labs: (a) global: 4 fields of 100 tumor cells each were selected to reflect observed heterogeneity in nuclear staining (b) hot-spot: the field with highest Ki67 percentage of tumor cells with nuclear staining was selected and up to 500 cells scored. Ki67 scores were log2-transformed for statistical analyses and back-transformed for presentation. The primary objective was to assess whether either method could achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) significantly greater than 0.8, considered substantial to almost-perfect reproducibility. Secondary objectives were to assess which method had highest observed ICC and to assess whether observers identified the same “hot-spots”.Results: ICC for the global method was 0.87 (95%CI: 0.799-0.93), marginally meeting the prespecified success criterion. The ICC for the hot-spot method was 0.83 (95%CI: 0.74-0.90) and had a CI extending below the success criterion. Across the 23 labs, geometric mean value of the 30 scores ranged from 8.5 to 19.6 for the global method and from 12.8 to 30.3 for the hot-spot method. The overall mean (95% CI) of these values was 12.9 (11.9-14.0) and 20.9 (19.1-22.8), respectively. Visually, between-laboratory agreement in location of selected hot-spot varies between cases. The median times for scoring were 9 and 6 minutes for global and hot-spot methods respectively.Conclusions: The global method marginally met the prespecified criterion of success; it should now be evaluated for clinical validity in appropriate cohorts of cases. The hot-spot method was observed to have slightly less reproducibility between labs. The time taken for scoring by either method is practical using counting software we are making publicly available. Establishment of external quality assessment schemes is likely to improve the reproducibility between labs further
  • Polley, Mei-Yin C, et al. (författare)
  • An international study to increase concordance in Ki67 scoring.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Modern Pathology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1530-0285. ; 28:6, s. 778-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although an important biomarker in breast cancer, Ki67 lacks scoring standardization, which has limited its clinical use. Our previous study found variability when laboratories used their own scoring methods on centrally stained tissue microarray slides. In this current study, 16 laboratories from eight countries calibrated to a specific Ki67 scoring method and then scored 50 centrally MIB-1 stained tissue microarray cases. Simple instructions prescribed scoring pattern and staining thresholds for determination of the percentage of stained tumor cells. To calibrate, laboratories scored 18 'training' and 'test' web-based images. Software tracked object selection and scoring. Success for the calibration was prespecified as Root Mean Square Error of scores compared with reference <0.6 and Maximum Absolute Deviation from reference <1.0 (log2-transformed data). Prespecified success criteria for tissue microarray scoring required intraclass correlation significantly >0.70 but aiming for observed intraclass correlation ≥0.90. Laboratory performance showed non-significant but promising trends of improvement through the calibration exercise (mean Root Mean Square Error decreased from 0.6 to 0.4, Maximum Absolute Deviation from 1.6 to 0.9; paired t-test: P=0.07 for Root Mean Square Error, 0.06 for Maximum Absolute Deviation). For tissue microarray scoring, the intraclass correlation estimate was 0.94 (95% credible interval: 0.90-0.97), markedly and significantly >0.70, the prespecified minimum target for success. Some discrepancies persisted, including around clinically relevant cutoffs. After calibrating to a common scoring method via a web-based tool, laboratories can achieve high inter-laboratory reproducibility in Ki67 scoring on centrally stained tissue microarray slides. Although these data are potentially encouraging, suggesting that it may be possible to standardize scoring of Ki67 among pathology laboratories, clinically important discrepancies persist. Before this biomarker could be recommended for clinical use, future research will need to extend this approach to biopsies and whole sections, account for staining variability, and link to outcomes.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 February 2015; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2015.38.
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