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  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
  • Frost Bellgowan, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • A Neural Substrate for Behavioral Inhibition in the Risk for Major Depressive Disorder
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. - 0890-8567. ; 54:10, s. 841-848
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early developing trait associated with cautiousness and development of clinical depression and anxiety. Little is known about the neural basis of BI and its predictive importance concerning risk for internalizing disorders. We looked at functional connectivity of the default-mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN), given their respective roles in self-relational and threat processing, in the risk for internalizing disorders, with an emphasis on determining the functional significance of these networks for BI. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan, during the resting state, children and adolescents 8 to 17 years of age who were either at high familial risk (HR; n = 16) or low familial risk (LR; n = 18) for developing clinical depression and/or anxiety. Whole-brain DMN and SN functional connectivity were estimated for each participant and compared across groups. We also compared the LR and HR groups on levels of BI and anxiety, and incorporated these data into follow-up neurobehavioral correlation analyses. Results: The HR group, relative to the LR group, showed significantly decreased DMN connectivity with the ventral striatum and bilateral sensorimotor cortices. Within the HR group, trait BI increased as DMN connectivity with the ventral striatum and sensorimotor cortex decreased. The HR and LR groups did not differ with respect to SN connectivity. Conclusion: Our findings show, in the risk for internalizing disorders, a negative functional relation between brain regions supporting self-relational processes and reward prediction. These findings represent a potential neural substrate for behavioral inhibition in the risk for clinical depression and anxiety.
  • Hamilton, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Striatal dopamine deficits predict reductions in striatal functional connectivity in major depression: a concurrent C-11-raclopride positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2158-3188. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by the altered integration of reward histories and reduced responding of the striatum. We have posited that this reduced striatal activation in MDD is due to tonically decreased stimulation of striatal dopamine synapses which results in decremented propagation of information along the corticostriatal-pallido-thalamic (CSPT) spiral. In the present investigation, we tested predictions of this formulation by conducting concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and C-11-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) in depressed and control (CTL) participants. We scanned 16 depressed and 14 CTL participants with simultaneous fMRI and C-11-raclopride PET. We estimated raclopride binding potential (BPND), voxel-wise, and compared MDD and CTL samples with respect to BPND in the striatum. Using striatal regions that showed significant between-group BPND differences as seeds, we conducted whole-brain functional connectivity analysis using the fMRI data and identified brain regions in each group in which connectivity with striatal seed regions scaled linearly with BPND from these regions. We observed increased BPND in the ventral striatum, bilaterally, and in the right dorsal striatum in the depressed participants. Further, we found that as BPND increased in both the left ventral striatum and right dorsal striatum in MDD, connectivity with the cortical targets of these regions (default-mode network and salience network, respectively) decreased. Deficits in stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors in MDD could account in part for the failure of transfer of information up the CSPT circuit in the pathophysiology of this disorder.
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