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Sökning: WFRF:(Dudding Tom)

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1.
  • Manousaki, D., et al. (författare)
  • Low-Frequency Synonymous Coding Variation in CYP2R1 Has Large Effects on Vitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : CELL PRESS. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 101:2, s. 227-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vitamin D insufficiency is common, correctable, and influenced by genetic factors, and it has been associated with risk of several diseases. We sought to identify low-frequency genetic variants that strongly increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and tested their effect on risk of multiple sclerosis, a disease influenced by low vitamin D concentrations. We used whole-genome sequencing data from 2,619 individuals through the UK10K program and deep-imputation data from 39,655 individuals genotyped genome-wide. Meta-analysis of the summary statistics from 19 cohorts identified in CYP2R1 the low-frequency (minor allele frequency = 2.5%) synonymous coding variant g.14900931G>A (p.Asp120Asp) (rs117913124[A]), which conferred a large effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (-0.43 SD of standardized natural log-transformed 25OHD per A allele; p value = 1.5 x 10(-88)). The effect on 25OHD was four times larger and independent of the effect of a previously described common variant near CYP2R1. By analyzing 8,711 individuals, we showed that heterozygote carriers of this low-frequency variant have an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78-2.78, p = 1.26 3 10 x(-12)). Individuals carrying one copy of this variant also had increased odds of multiple sclerosis (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.19-1.64, p = 2.63 3 10 x(-5)) in a sample of 5,927 case and 5,599 control subjects. In conclusion, we describe a low-frequency CYP2R1 coding variant that exerts the largest effect upon 25OHD levels identified to date in the general European population and implicates vitamin D in the etiology of multiple sclerosis.
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2.
  • Dodhia, Serena A., et al. (författare)
  • Examining the causal association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and caries in children and adults : A two-sample Mendelian randomization approach
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Wellcome Open Research. - : F1000 Research Ltd. - 2398-502X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Prior observational studies have reported that higher levels of vitamin D are associated with decreased caries risk in children. However, these studies are prone to bias and confounding so do not provide causal inference. Genetic variants associated with a risk factor of interest can be used as proxies, in a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis, to test for causal association with an outcome. The objective was to estimate the causal association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (the commonly measured vitamin D metabolite in blood) and dental caries using a two-sample MR approach which estimates the causal effect of an exposure on an outcome.Methods: A total of 79 genetic variants reliably associated with 25(OH)D were identified from genome-wide association studies and used as a proxy measure of 25(OH)D. The association of this proxy measure with three outcome measures was tested; specifically: caries in primary teeth (n=17,035, aged 3-12 years), caries in permanent teeth in childhood and adolescence (n=13,386, aged 6-18 years), and caries severity in adulthood proxied by decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (DMFS) counts (n=26,792, aged 18-93 years).Results: The estimated causal effect of a one standard deviation increase in natural log-transformed 25(OH)D could be summarized as an odds ratio of 1.06 (95%CI: 0.81, 1.31; P=0.66) for caries in primary teeth and 1.00 (95%CI: 0.76, 1.23; P=0.97) for caries in permanent teeth in childhood and adolescence. In adults, the estimated casual effect of a one standard deviation increase in natural log-transformed 25(OH)D was 0.31 fewer affected tooth surfaces (95%CI: from 1.81 fewer DMFS to 1.19 more DMFS; P=0.68)Conclusions: The MR-derived effect estimates for these three measures are small in magnitude with wide confidence intervals and do not provide evidence for a causal relationship between 25(OH)D and dental caries.
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3.
  • Dudding, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • Genome wide analysis for mouth ulcers identifies associations at immune regulatory loci
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mouth ulcers are the most common ulcerative condition and encompass several clinical diagnoses, including recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Despite previous evidence for heritability, it is not clear which specific genetic loci are implicated in RAS. In this genome-wide association study (n = 461,106) heritability is estimated at 8.2% (95% CI: 6.4%, 9.9%). This study finds 97 variants which alter the odds of developing non-specific mouth ulcers and replicate these in an independent cohort (n = 355,744) (lead variant after meta-analysis: rs76830965, near IL12A, OR 0.72 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.73); P = 4.4e−483). Additional effect estimates from three independent cohorts with more specific phenotyping and specific study characteristics support many of these findings. In silico functional analyses provide evidence for a role of T cell regulation in the aetiology of mouth ulcers. These results provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of a common, important condition.
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4.
  • Haworth, Simon, et al. (författare)
  • Consortium-based genome-wide meta-analysis for childhood dental caries traits
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 27:17, s. 3113-3127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prior studies suggest dental caries traits in children and adolescents are partially heritable, but there has been no large-scale consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS) to date. We therefore performed GWAS for caries in participants aged 2.5-18.0 years from nine contributing centres. Phenotype definitions were created for the presence or absence of treated or untreated caries, stratified by primary and permanent dentition. All studies tested for association between caries and genotype dosage and the results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Analysis included up to 19 003 individuals (7530 affected) for primary teeth and 13 353 individuals (5875 affected) for permanent teeth. Evidence for association with caries status was observed at rs1594318-C for primary teeth [intronic within ALLC, odds ratio (OR) 0.85, effect allele frequency (EAF) 0.60, P 4.13e-8] and rs7738851-A (intronic within NEDD9, OR 1.28, EAF 0.85, P 1.63e-8) for permanent teeth. Consortiumwide estimated heritability of caries was low [h2 of 1% (95% CI: 0%: 7%) and 6% (95% CI 0%: 13%) for primary and permanent dentitions, respectively] compared with corresponding within-study estimates [h2 of 28% (95% CI: 9%: 48%) and 17% (95% CI: 2%: 31%)] or previously published estimates. This study was designed to identify common genetic variants with modest effects which are consistent across different populations. We found few single variants associated with caries status under these assumptions. Phenotypic heterogeneity between cohorts and limited statistical power will have contributed; these findings could also reflect complexity not captured by our study design, such as genetic effects which are conditional on environmental exposure.
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