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Sökning: WFRF:(Duffy Darragh)

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2.
  • Alanio, Cécile, et al. (författare)
  • Bystander hyperactivation of preimmune CD8(+) T cells in chronic HCV patients
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: eLife. - : eLife Sciences Publications LTD.. - 2050-084X. ; 2015:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic infection perturbs immune homeostasis. While prior studies have reported dysregulation of effector and memory cells, little is known about the effects on naïve T cell populations. We performed a cross-sectional study of chronic hepatitis C (cHCV) patients using tetramer-associated magnetic enrichment to study antigen-specific inexperienced CD8(+) T cells (i.e., tumor or unrelated virus-specific populations in tumor-free and sero-negative individuals). cHCV showed normal precursor frequencies, but increased proportions of memory-phenotype inexperienced cells, as compared to healthy donors or cured HCV patients. These observations could be explained by low surface expression of CD5, a negative regulator of TCR signaling. Accordingly, we demonstrated TCR hyperactivation and generation of potent CD8(+) T cell responses from the altered T cell repertoire of cHCV patients. In sum, we provide the first evidence that naïve CD8(+) T cells are dysregulated during cHCV infection, and establish a new mechanism of immune perturbation secondary to chronic infection.
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3.
  • Clave, Emmanuel, et al. (författare)
  • Human thymopoiesis is influenced by a common genetic variant within the TCRA-TCRD locus
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1946-6234. ; 10:457
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ where naïve T cells are generated; however, with the exception of age, the parameters that govern its function in healthy humans remain unknown. We characterized the variability of thymic function among 1000 age- and sex-stratified healthy adults of the Milieu Intérieur cohort, using quantification of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in peripheral blood T cells as a surrogate marker of thymopoiesis. Age and sex were the only nonheritable factors identified that affect thymic function. TREC amounts decreased with age and were higher in women compared to men. In addition, a genome-wide association study revealed a common variant (rs2204985) within the T cell receptor TCRA-TCRD locus, between the DD2 and DD3 gene segments, which associated with TREC amounts. Strikingly, transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells with the rs2204985 GG genotype into immunodeficient mice led to thymopoiesis with higher TRECs, increased thymocyte counts, and a higher TCR repertoire diversity. Our population immunology approach revealed a genetic locus that influences thymopoiesis in healthy adults, with potentially broad implications in precision medicine.
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4.
  • Duffy, Darragh, et al. (författare)
  • The ABCs of viral hepatitis that define biomarker signatures of acute viral hepatitis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1527-3350. ; 59:4, s. 1273-1282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of liver disease worldwide and can be caused by several agents, including hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus. We employed multiplexed protein immune assays to identify biomarker signatures of viral hepatitis in order to define unique and common responses for three different acute viral infections of the liver. We performed multianalyte profiling, measuring the concentrations of 182 serum proteins obtained from acute HAV- (18), HBV- (18), and HCV-infected (28) individuals, recruited as part of a hospital-based surveillance program in Cairo, Egypt. Virus-specific biomarker signatures were identified and validation was performed using a unique patient population. A core signature of 46 plasma proteins was commonly modulated in all three infections, as compared to healthy controls. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed a host response based upon 34 proteins, which could distinguish HCV patients from HAV- and HBV-infected individuals or healthy controls. When HAV and HBV groups were compared directly, 34 differentially expressed serum proteins allowed the separation of these two patient groups. A validation study was performed on an additional 111 patients, confirming the relevance of our initial findings, and defining the 17 analytes that reproducibly segregated the patient populations. Conclusions: This combined discovery and biomarker validation approach revealed a previously unrecognized virus-specific induction of host proteins. The identification of hepatitis virus specific signatures provides a foundation for functional studies and the identification of potential correlates of viral clearance. (Hepatology 2014;59:1273-1282)
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5.
  • Kaleviste, Epp, et al. (författare)
  • Interferon signature in patients with STAT1 gain-of-function mutation is epigenetically determined
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology. - : WILEY. - 0014-2980 .- 1521-4141. ; 49:5, s. 790-800
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) variants lead to defective Th17 cell development and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), but frequently also to autoimmunity. Stimulation of cells with STAT1 inducing cytokines like interferons (IFN) result in hyperphosphorylation and delayed dephosphorylation of GOF STAT1. However, the mechanism how the delayed dephosphorylation exactly causes the increased expression of STAT1-dependent genes, and how the intracellular signal transduction from cytokine receptors is affected, remains unknown. In this study we show that the circulating levels of IFN-alpha were not persistently elevated in STAT1 GOF patients. Nevertheless, the expression of interferon signature genes was evident even in the patient with low or undetectable serum IFN-alpha levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that the active chromatin mark trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3), was significantly enriched in areas associated with interferon-stimulated genes in STAT1 GOF cells in comparison to cells from healthy donors. This suggests that the chromatin binding of GOF STAT1 variant promotes epigenetic changes compatible with higher gene expression and elevated reactivity to type I interferons, and possibly predisposes for interferon-related autoimmunity. The results also suggest that epigenetic rewiring may be responsible for treatment failure of Janus kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) inhibitors in certain patients.
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6.
  • Patin, Etienne, et al. (författare)
  • Natural variation in the parameters of innate immune cells is preferentially driven by genetic factors
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Immunology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1529-2908. ; 19, s. 302-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The quantification and characterization of circulating immune cells provide key indicators of human health and disease. To identify the relative effects of environmental and genetic factors on variation in the parameters of innate and adaptive immune cells in homeostatic conditions, we combined standardized flow cytometry of blood leukocytes and genome-wide DNA genotyping of 1,000 healthy, unrelated people of Western European ancestry. We found that smoking, together with age, sex and latent infection with cytomegalovirus, were the main non-genetic factors that affected variation in parameters of human immune cells. Genome-wide association studies of 166 immunophenotypes identified 15 loci that showed enrichment for disease-associated variants. Finally, we demonstrated that the parameters of innate cells were more strongly controlled by genetic variation than were those of adaptive cells, which were driven by mainly environmental exposure. Our data establish a resource that will generate new hypotheses in immunology and highlight the role of innate immunity in susceptibility to common autoimmune diseases.
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7.
  • Piasecka, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Distinctive roles of age, sex, and genetics in shaping transcriptional variation of human immune responses to microbial challenges
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 115:3, s. 488-497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The contribution of host genetic and nongenetic factors to immunological differences in humans remains largely undefined. Here, we generated bacterial-, fungal-, and viral-induced immune transcriptional profiles in an age- and sex-balanced cohort of 1,000 healthy individuals and searched for the determinants of immune response variation. We found that age and sex affected the transcriptional response of most immune-related genes, with age effects being more stimulus-specific relative to sex effects, which were largely shared across conditions. Although specific cell populations mediated the effects of age and sex on gene expression, including CD8+ T cells for age and CD4+ T cells and monocytes for sex, we detected a direct effect of these intrinsic factors for the majority of immune genes. The mapping of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) revealed that genetic factors had a stronger effect on immune gene regulation than age and sex, yet they affected a smaller number of genes. Importantly, we identified numerous genetic variants that manifested their regulatory effects exclusively on immune stimulation, including a Candida albicans-specific master regulator at the CR1 locus. These response eQTLs were enriched in disease-associated variants, particularly for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, indicating that differences in disease risk may result from regulatory variants exerting their effects only in the presence of immune stress. Together, this study quantifies the respective effects of age, sex, genetics, and cellular heterogeneity on the interindividual variability of immune responses and constitutes a valuable resource for further exploration in the context of different infection risks or disease outcomes.
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8.
  • Scepanovic, Petar, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive assessment of demographic, environmental, and host genetic associations with gut microbiome diversity in healthy individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Microbiome. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2049-2618. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is an important determinant of human health. Its composition has been shown to be influenced by multiple environmental factors and likely by host genetic variation. In the framework of the Milieu Intérieur Consortium, a total of 1000 healthy individuals of western European ancestry, with a 1:1 sex ratio and evenly stratified across five decades of life (age 20-69), were recruited. We generated 16S ribosomal RNA profiles from stool samples for 858 participants. We investigated genetic and non-genetic factors that contribute to individual differences in fecal microbiome composition. RESULTS: Among 110 demographic, clinical, and environmental factors, 11 were identified as significantly correlated with α-diversity, ß-diversity, or abundance of specific microbial communities in multivariable models. Age and blood alanine aminotransferase levels showed the strongest associations with microbiome diversity. In total, all non-genetic factors explained 16.4% of the variance. We then searched for associations between > 5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and the same indicators of fecal microbiome diversity, including the significant non-genetic factors as covariates. No genome-wide significant associations were identified after correction for multiple testing. A small fraction of previously reported associations between human genetic variants and specific taxa could be replicated in our cohort, while no replication was observed for any of the diversity metrics. CONCLUSION: In a well-characterized cohort of healthy individuals, we identified several non-genetic variables associated with fecal microbiome diversity. In contrast, host genetics only had a negligible influence. Demographic and environmental factors are thus the main contributors to fecal microbiome composition in healthy individuals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01699893.
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9.
  • Scepanovic, Petar, et al. (författare)
  • Human genetic variants and age are the strongest predictors of humoral immune responses to common pathogens and vaccines
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Genome Medicine. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1756-994X. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Humoral immune responses to infectious agents or vaccination vary substantially among individuals, and many of the factors responsible for this variability remain to be defined. Current evidence suggests that human genetic variation influences (i) serum immunoglobulin levels, (ii) seroconversion rates, and (iii) intensity of antigen-specific immune responses. Here, we evaluated the impact of intrinsic (age and sex), environmental, and genetic factors on the variability of humoral response to common pathogens and vaccines. Methods: We characterized the serological response to 15 antigens from common human pathogens or vaccines, in an age- and sex-stratified cohort of 1000 healthy individuals (Milieu Intérieur cohort). Using clinical-grade serological assays, we measured total IgA, IgE, IgG, and IgM levels, as well as qualitative (serostatus) and quantitative IgG responses to cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, influenza A virus, measles, mumps, rubella, and hepatitis B virus. Following genome-wide genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms and imputation, we examined associations between ~5 million genetic variants and antibody responses using single marker and gene burden tests. Results: We identified age and sex as important determinants of humoral immunity, with older individuals and women having higher rates of seropositivity for most antigens. Genome-wide association studies revealed significant associations between variants in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region on chromosome 6 and anti-EBV and anti-rubella IgG levels. We used HLA imputation to fine map these associations to amino acid variants in the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DRβ1 and HLA-DPβ1, respectively. We also observed significant associations for total IgA levels with two loci on chromosome 2 and with specific KIR-HLA combinations. Conclusions: Using extensive serological testing and genome-wide association analyses in a well-characterized cohort of healthy individuals, we demonstrated that age, sex, and specific human genetic variants contribute to inter-individual variability in humoral immunity. By highlighting genes and pathways implicated in the normal antibody response to frequently encountered antigens, these findings provide a basis to better understand disease pathogenesis.
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10.
  • Scharff, Anna Zychlinsky, et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in IL-17 contribute to chronicity in male versus female urinary tract infection
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JCI Insight. - : The American Society for Clinical Investigation. - 2379-3708. ; 4:13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sex-based differences influence incidence and outcome of infectious disease. Women have a significantly greater incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) than men, yet, conversely, male UTI is more persistent, with greater associated morbidity. Mechanisms underlying these sex-based differences are unknown, in part due to a lack of experimental models. We optimized a model to transurethrally infect male mice and directly compared UTI in both sexes. Although both sexes were initially equally colonized by uropathogenic E. coli, only male and testosterone-treated female mice remained chronically infected for up to 4 weeks. Female mice had more robust innate responses, including higher IL-17 expression, and increased γδ T cells and group 3 innate lymphoid cells in the bladder following infection. Accordingly, neutralizing IL-17 abolished resolution in female mice, identifying a cytokine pathway necessary for bacterial clearance. Our findings support the concept that sex-based responses to UTI contribute to impaired innate immunity in males and provide a rationale for non–antibiotic-based immune targeting to improve the response to UTI.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 11
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