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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Dumas Marc Emmanuel) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Dumas Marc Emmanuel)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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1.
  • Forslund, Sofia K., et al. (författare)
  • Combinatorial, additive and dose-dependent drug–microbiome associations
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; In Press
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the transition from a healthy state to cardiometabolic disease, patients become heavily medicated, which leads to an increasingly aberrant gut microbiome and serum metabolome, and complicates biomarker discovery1–5. Here, through integrated multi-omics analyses of 2,173 European residents from the MetaCardis cohort, we show that the explanatory power of drugs for the variability in both host and gut microbiome features exceeds that of disease. We quantify inferred effects of single medications, their combinations as well as additive effects, and show that the latter shift the metabolome and microbiome towards a healthier state, exemplified in synergistic reduction in serum atherogenic lipoproteins by statins combined with aspirin, or enrichment of intestinal Roseburia by diuretic agents combined with beta-blockers. Several antibiotics exhibit a quantitative relationship between the number of courses prescribed and progression towards a microbiome state that is associated with the severity of cardiometabolic disease. We also report a relationship between cardiometabolic drug dosage, improvement in clinical markers and microbiome composition, supporting direct drug effects. Taken together, our computational framework and resulting resources enable the disentanglement of the effects of drugs and disease on host and microbiome features in multimedicated individuals. Furthermore, the robust signatures identified using our framework provide new hypotheses for drug–host–microbiome interactions in cardiometabolic disease.
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2.
  • Molinaro, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Imidazole propionate is increased in diabetes and associated with dietary patterns and altered microbial ecology
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbiota-host-diet interactions contribute to the development of metabolic diseases. Imidazole propionate is a novel microbially produced metabolite from histidine, which impairs glucose metabolism. Here, we show that subjects with prediabetes and diabetes in the MetaCardis cohort from three European countries have elevated serum imidazole propionate levels. Furthermore, imidazole propionate levels were increased in subjects with low bacterial gene richness and Bacteroides 2 enterotype, which have previously been associated with obesity. The Bacteroides 2 enterotype was also associated with increased abundance of the genes involved in imidazole propionate biosynthesis from dietary histidine. Since patients and controls did not differ in their histidine dietary intake, the elevated levels of imidazole propionate in type 2 diabetes likely reflects altered microbial metabolism of histidine, rather than histidine intake per se. Thus the microbiota may contribute to type 2 diabetes by generating imidazole propionate that can modulate host inflammation and metabolism.
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3.
  • Vieira-Silva, S., et al. (författare)
  • Statin therapy is associated with lower prevalence of gut microbiota dysbiosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 581:7808, s. 310-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbiome community typing analyses have recently identified the Bacteroides2 (Bact2) enterotype, an intestinal microbiota configuration that is associated with systemic inflammation and has a high prevalence in loose stools in humans1,2. Bact2 is characterized by a high proportion of Bacteroides, a low proportion of Faecalibacterium and low microbial cell densities1,2, and its prevalence varies from 13% in a general population cohort to as high as 78% in patients with inflammatory bowel disease2. Reported changes in stool consistency3 and inflammation status4 during the progression towards obesity and metabolic comorbidities led us to propose that these developments might similarly correlate with an increased prevalence of the potentially dysbiotic Bact2 enterotype. Here, by exploring obesity-associated microbiota alterations in the quantitative faecal metagenomes of the cross-sectional MetaCardis Body Mass Index Spectrum cohort (n = 888), we identify statin therapy as a key covariate of microbiome diversification. By focusing on a subcohort of participants that are not medicated with statins, we find that the prevalence of Bact2 correlates with body mass index, increasing from 3.90% in lean or overweight participants to 17.73% in obese participants. Systemic inflammation levels in Bact2-enterotyped individuals are higher than predicted on the basis of their obesity status, indicative of Bact2 as a dysbiotic microbiome constellation. We also observe that obesity-associated microbiota dysbiosis is negatively associated with statin treatment, resulting in a lower Bact2 prevalence of 5.88% in statin-medicated obese participants. This finding is validated in both the accompanying MetaCardis cardiovascular disease dataset (n = 282) and the independent Flemish Gut Flora Project population cohort (n = 2,345). The potential benefits of statins in this context will require further evaluation in a prospective clinical trial to ascertain whether the effect is reproducible in a randomized population and before considering their application as microbiota-modulating therapeutics. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
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4.
  • Brial, François, et al. (författare)
  • Human and preclinical studies of the host-gut microbiome co-metabolite hippurate as a marker and mediator of metabolic health
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 70:11, s. 2105-2114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Gut microbial products are involved in regulation of host metabolism. In human and experimental studies, we explored the potential role of hippurate, a hepatic phase 2 conjugation product of microbial benzoate, as a marker and mediator of metabolic health.DESIGN: In 271 middle-aged non-diabetic Danish individuals, who were stratified on habitual dietary intake, we applied 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of urine samples and shotgun-sequencing-based metagenomics of the gut microbiome to explore links between the urine level of hippurate, measures of the gut microbiome, dietary fat and markers of metabolic health. In mechanistic experiments with chronic subcutaneous infusion of hippurate to high-fat-diet-fed obese mice, we tested for causality between hippurate and metabolic phenotypes.RESULTS: In the human study, we showed that urine hippurate positively associates with microbial gene richness and functional modules for microbial benzoate biosynthetic pathways, one of which is less prevalent in the Bacteroides 2 enterotype compared with Ruminococcaceae or Prevotella enterotypes. Through dietary stratification, we identify a subset of study participants consuming a diet rich in saturated fat in which urine hippurate concentration, independently of gene richness, accounts for links with metabolic health. In the high-fat-fed mice experiments, we demonstrate causality through chronic infusion of hippurate (20 nmol/day) resulting in improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin secretion.CONCLUSION: Our human and experimental studies show that a high urine hippurate concentration is a general marker of metabolic health, and in the context of obesity induced by high-fat diets, hippurate contributes to metabolic improvements, highlighting its potential as a mediator of metabolic health.
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5.
  • Cloarec, Olivier, et al. (författare)
  • Statistical Total Correlation Spectroscopy: An Exploratory Approach for Latent Biomarker Identification from Metabolic 1H NMR Data Sets
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Analytical Chemistry. ; 77:5, s. 1282-89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe here the implementation of the statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY) analysis method for aiding the identification of potential biomarker molecules in metabonomic studies based on NMR spectroscopic data. STOCSY takes advantage of the multicollinearity of the intensity variables in a set of spectra (in this case 1H NMR spectra) to generate a pseudo-two-dimensional NMR spectrum that displays the correlation among the intensities of the various peaks across the whole sample. This method is not limited to the usual connectivities that are deducible from more standard two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods, such as TOCSY. Moreover, two or more molecules involved in the same pathway can also present high intermolecular correlations because of biological covariance or can even be anticorrelated. This combination of STOCSY with supervised pattern recognition and particularly orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (O-PLS-DA) offers a new powerful framework for analysis of metabonomic data. In a first step O-PLS-DA extracts the part of NMR spectra related to discrimination. This information is then cross-combined with the STOCSY results to help identify the molecules responsible for the metabolic variation. To illustrate the applicability of the method, it has been applied to 1H NMR spectra of urine from a metabonomic study of a model of insulin resistance based on the administration of a carbohydrate diet to three different mice strains (C57BL/6Oxjr, BALB/cOxjr, and 129S6/SvEvOxjr) in which a series of metabolites of biological importance can be conclusively assigned and identified by use of the STOCSY approach.
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6.
  • Nicholson, George, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide metabolic QTL analysis in Europeans implicates two loci shaped by recent positive selection
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 7:9, s. e1002270-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have performed a metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) study of the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) metabolome in humans, building on recent targeted knowledge of genetic drivers of metabolic regulation. Urine and plasma samples were collected from two cohorts of individuals of European descent, with one cohort comprised of female twins donating samples longitudinally. Sample metabolite concentrations were quantified by 1H NMR and tested for association with genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Four metabolites' concentrations exhibited significant, replicable association with SNP variation (8.6×10−11<p<2.8×10−23). Three of these—trimethylamine, 3-amino-isobutyrate, and an N-acetylated compound—were measured in urine. The other—dimethylamine—was measured in plasma. Trimethylamine and dimethylamine mapped to a single genetic region (hence we report a total of three implicated genomic regions). Two of the three hit regions lie within haplotype blocks (at 2p13.1 and 10q24.2) that carry the genetic signature of strong, recent, positive selection in European populations. Genes NAT8 and PYROXD2, both with relatively uncharacterized functional roles, are good candidates for mediating the corresponding mQTL associations. The study's longitudinal twin design allowed detailed variance-components analysis of the sources of population variation in metabolite levels. The mQTLs explained 40%–64% of biological population variation in the corresponding metabolites' concentrations. These effect sizes are stronger than those reported in a recent, targeted mQTL study of metabolites in serum using the targeted-metabolomics Biocrates platform. By re-analysing our plasma samples using the Biocrates platform, we replicated the mQTL findings of the previous study and discovered a previously uncharacterized yet substantial familial component of variation in metabolite levels in addition to the heritability contribution from the corresponding mQTL effects.
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7.
  • Sayou, Camille, et al. (författare)
  • A SAM oligomerization domain shapes the genomic binding landscape of the LEAFY transcription factor
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deciphering the mechanisms directing transcription factors (TFs) to specific genome regions is essential to understand and predict transcriptional regulation. TFs recognize short DNA motifs primarily through their DNA-binding domain. Some TFs also possess an oligomerization domain suspected to potentiate DNA binding but for which the genome-wide influence remains poorly understood. Here we focus on the LEAFY transcription factor, a master regulator of flower development in angiosperms. We have determined the crystal structure of its conserved amino-terminal domain, revealing an unanticipated Sterile Alpha Motif oligomerization domain. We show that this domain is essential to LEAFY floral function. Moreover, combined biochemical and genome-wide assays suggest that oligomerization is required for LEAFY to access regions with low-affinity binding sites or closed chromatin. This finding shows that domains that do not directly contact DNA can nevertheless have a profound impact on the DNA binding landscape of a TF.
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  • Resultat 1-7 av 7

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