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Sökning: WFRF:(Eastwood Glenn M.)

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1.
  • Dankiewicz, J., et al. (författare)
  • Hypothermia versus Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 384:24, s. 2283-2294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypothermia or Normothermia after Cardiac Arrest This trial randomly assigned patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33 degrees C or normothermia with treatment of fever. At 6 months, there were no significant between-group differences regarding death or functional outcomes. Background Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. Methods In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33 degrees C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, >= 37.8 degrees C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. Results A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P=0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score >= 4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, .)
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2.
  • Dankiewicz, J., et al. (författare)
  • Targeted hypothermia versus targeted Normothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (TTM2): A randomized clinical trial - Rationale and design
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 217, s. 23-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Less than 500 participants have been included in randomized trials comparing hypothermia with regular care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, and many of these trials were small and at a high risk of bias. Consequently, the accrued data on this potentially beneficial intervention resembles that of a drug following small phase II trials. A large confirmatory trial is therefore warranted. Methods: The TTM2-trial is an international, multicenter, parallel group, investigator-initiated, randomized, superiority trial in which a target temperature of 33°C after cardiac arrest will be compared with a strategy to maintain normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C). Participants will be randomized within 3 hours of return of spontaneous circulation with the intervention period lasting 40 hours in both groups. Sedation will be mandatory for all patients throughout the intervention period. The clinical team involved with direct patient care will not be blinded to allocation group due to the inherent difficulty in blinding the intervention. Prognosticators, outcome-assessors, the steering group, the trial coordinating team, and trial statistician will be blinded. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at 180 days after randomization. We estimate a 55% mortality in the control group. To detect an absolute risk reduction of 7.5% with an alpha of 0.05 and 90% power, 1900 participants will be enrolled. The main secondary neurological outcome will be poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 4–6) at 180 days after arrest. Discussion: The TTM2-trial will compare hypothermia to 33°C with normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. © 2019
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3.
  • Lilja, Gisela, et al. (författare)
  • Protocol for outcome reporting and follow-up in the Targeted Hypothermia versus Targeted Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest trial (TTM2)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - : Elsevier. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 150, s. 104-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The TTM2-trial is a multi-centre randomised clinical trial where targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 °C will be compared with normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8 °C) after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA). This paper presents the design and rationale of the TTM2-trial follow-up, where information on secondary and exploratory outcomes will be collected. We also present the explorative outcome analyses which will focus on neurocognitive function and societal participation in OHCA-survivors. Methods: Blinded outcome-assessors will perform follow-up at 30-days after the OHCA with a telephone interview, including the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). Face-to-face meetings will be performed at 6 and 24-months, and include reports on outcome from several sources of information: clinician-reported: mRS, GOSE; patient-reported: EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Level responses version (EQ-5D-5L), Life satisfaction, Two Simple Questions; observer-reported: Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly-Cardiac Arrest version (IQCODE-CA) and neurocognitive performance measures: Montreal Cognitive Assessment, (MoCA), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Exploratory analyses will be performed with an emphasis on brain injury in the survivors, where the two intervention groups will be compared for potential differences in neuro-cognitive function (MoCA, SDMT) and societal participation (GOSE). Strategies to increase inter-rater reliability and decrease missing data are described. Discussion: The TTM2-trial follow-up is a pragmatic yet detailed pre-planned and standardised assessment of patient's outcome designed to ensure data-quality, decrease missing data and provide optimal conditions to investigate clinically relevant effects of TTM, including OHCA-survivors’ neurocognitive function and societal participation.
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4.
  • Jakobsen, Janus Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Targeted hypothermia versus targeted normothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a statistical analysis plan.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Trials. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1745-6215. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To date, targeted temperature management (TTM) is the only neuroprotective intervention after resuscitation from cardiac arrest that is recommended by guidelines. The evidence on the effects of TTM is unclear.The Targeted Hypothermia Versus Targeted Normothermia After Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest (TTM2) trial is an international, multicentre, parallel group, investigator-initiated, randomised, superiority trial in which TTM with a target temperature of 33 °C after cardiac arrest will be compared with a strategy to maintain normothermia and active treatment of fever (≥ 37.8 °C). Prognosticators, outcome assessors, the steering group, the trial coordinating team, and trial statisticians will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at 180 days after randomisation. We estimate a 55% mortality in the targeted normothermia group. To detect an absolute risk reduction of 7.5% with an alpha of 0.05 and 90% power, 1900 participants will be enrolled. The secondary neurological outcome will be poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale 4-6) at 180 days after cardiac arrest. In this paper, a detailed statistical analysis plan is presented, including a comprehensive description of the statistical analyses, handling of missing data, and assessments of underlying statistical assumptions. Final analyses will be conducted independently by two qualified statisticians following the present plan.This SAP, which was prepared before completion of enrolment, should increase the validity of the TTM trial by mitigation of analysis-bias.
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6.
  • Glassford, Neil J., et al. (författare)
  • The nature and discriminatory value of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in critically ill patients at risk of acute kidney injury
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine. - 0342-4642 .- 1432-1238. ; 39:10, s. 1714-1724
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Different molecular forms of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) have recently been discovered. We aimed to explore the nature, source and discriminatory value of urinary NGAL in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We simultaneously measured plasma NGAL (pNGAL), urinary NGAL (uNGAL), and estimated monomeric and homodimeric uNGAL contribution using Western blotting-validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [uNGAL(E1) and uNGAL(E2)] and their calculated ratio in 102 patients with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and oliguria, and/or a creatinine rise of > 25 mu mol/L. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that, despite correlating well (r = 0.988), uNGAL and uNGAL(E1) were clinically distinct, lacking both accuracy and precision (bias: 266.23; 95 % CI 82.03-450.44 ng/mg creatinine; limits of agreement: -1,573.86 to 2,106.32 ng/mg creatinine). At best, urinary forms of NGAL are fair (area under the receiver operating characteristic [AUROC] a parts per thousand currency sign0.799) predictors of renal or patient outcome; most perform significantly worse. The 44 patients with a primarily monomeric source of uNGAL had higher pNGAL (118.5 ng/ml vs. 72.5 ng/ml; p < 0.001), remaining significant following Bonferroni correction. uNGAL is not a useful predictor of outcome in this ICU population. uNGAL patterns may predict distinct clinical phenotypes. The nature and source of uNGAL are complex and challenge the utility of NGAL as a uniform biomarker.
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7.
  • Lipcsey, Miklos, et al. (författare)
  • Near-infrared spectroscopy of the thenar eminence : comparison of dynamic testing protocols
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Critical Care and Resuscitation. - 1441-2772. ; 14:2, s. 142-147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy of the thenar eminence (NIRSth) is a non-invasive bedside method for assessing tissue oxygenation. The vascular occlusion test (VOT) with a pressure cuff can be used to provide a dynamic assessment of the tissue oxygenation response to ischaemia. VOT has been applied to assess the microcirculation by NIRSth in critically ill patients. The optimal mode of performing such VOT, however, remains controversial. Design, participants and setting: Prospective observational study among a cohort of 11 healthy volunteers in a tertiary intensive care department. Intervention: Measurement of NIRS-derived parameters using 1-, 2- and 3-minute VOTs or VOT to 40% tissue oxygen saturation (StO(2)). Main outcome measure: Changes in StO(2) and tissue haemoglobin index (THI) over time, and relative change from baseline for StO(2) and THI. Results: Mean baseline StO(2) was 80% (SD, 5%) and mean THI was 13.7 (SD, 1.9). The lowest StO(2) at the end of the VOT was 39% (SD, 13%) and 39% (SD, 2%) in the 3-minute and the 40% StO(2) VOTs, respectively. The duration of the 40% StO(2) VOT ranged from 1:35 to 8:21 minutes (median, 3:29 min). There was a difference between the StO(2) curves for the 3-minute and 40% StO(2) VOT (P = 0.005) but not the THI curves. Reported pain score was a median of 3.5 (IQR, 2.5-5.5) and 4 (IQR 2-4) for the 3-minute and 40% StO(2) VOTs, respectively. Conclusions: The 3-minute VOT and the 40% StO(2) appear equivalent. However, the 3-minute VOT carries a degree of decreased patient discomfort and shorter overall duration of execution.
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9.
  • Schneider, Antoine G, et al. (författare)
  • Arterial carbon dioxide tension and outcome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit after cardiac arrest
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - 0300-9572 .- 1873-1570. ; 84:7, s. 927-934
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundArterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) affects neuronal function and cerebral blood flow. However, its association with outcome in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac arrest (CA) has not been evaluated.Methods and resultsObservational cohort study using data from the Australian New Zealand (ANZ) Intensive Care Society Adult-Patient-Database (ANZICS-APD). Outcomes analyses were adjusted for illness severity, co-morbidities, hypothermia, treatment limitations, age, year of admission, glucose, source of admission, PaO2 and propensity score.We studied 16,542 consecutive patients admitted to 125 ANZ ICUs after CA between 2000 and 2011. Using the APD-PaCO2 (obtained within 24 h of ICU admission), 3010 (18.2%) were classified into the hypo- (PaCO2 < 35 mmHg), 6705 (40.5%) into the normo- (35–45 mmHg) and 6827 (41.3%) into the hypercapnia (>45 mmHg) group. The hypocapnia group, compared with the normocapnia group, had a trend toward higher in-hospital mortality (OR 1.12 [95% CI 1.00–1.24, p = 0.04]), lower rate of discharge home (OR 0.81 [0.70–0.94, p < 0.01]) and higher likelihood of fulfilling composite adverse outcome of death and no discharge home (OR 1.23 [1.10–1.37, p < 0.001]). In contrast, the hypercapnia group had similar in-hospital mortality (OR 1.06 [0.97–1.15, p = 0.19]) but higher rate of discharge home among survivors (OR 1.16 [1.03–1.32, p = 0.01]) and similar likelihood of fulfilling the composite outcome (OR 0.97 [0.89–1.06, p = 0.52]). Cox-proportional hazards modelling supported these findings.ConclusionsHypo- and hypercapnia are common after ICU admission post-CA. Compared with normocapnia, hypocapnia was independently associated with worse clinical outcomes and hypercapnia a greater likelihood of discharge home among survivors.
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10.
  • Suzuki, Satoshi, et al. (författare)
  • Pulse pressure variation-guided fluid therapy after cardiac surgery : A pilot before-and-after trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of critical care. - 0883-9441 .- 1557-8615. ; 29:6, s. 992-996
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The aim of this study is to study the feasibility, safety, and physiological effects of pulse pressure variation (PPV)-guided fluid therapy in patients after cardiac surgery. Materials and methods: We conducted a pilot prospective before-and-after study during mandatory ventilation after cardiac surgery in a tertiary intensive care unit. We introduced a protocol to deliver a fluid bolus for a PPV >= 13% for at least >10 minutes during the intervention period. Results: We studied 45 control patients and 53 intervention patients. During the intervention period, clinicians administered a fluid bolus on 79% of the defined PPV trigger episodes. Median total fluid intake was similar between 2 groups during mandatory ventilation (1297 mL[interquartile range 549-1968] vs 1481 mL [807-2563]; P =. 17) and the first 24 hours (3046 mL [interquartile range 2317-3982] vs 3017 mL [2192-4028]; P = .73). After adjusting for several baseline factors, PPV-guided fluid management significantly increased fluid intake during mandatory ventilation (P = .004) but not during the first 24 hours (P = .47). Pulse pressure variation-guided fluid therapy, however, did not significantly affect hemodynamic, renal, and metabolic variables. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Pulse pressure variation-guided fluid management was feasible and safe during mandatory ventilation after cardiac surgery. However, its advantages may be clinically small.
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