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Sökning: WFRF:(Eberhard J.)

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  • [1]234567...9Nästa
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1.
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2.
  • Biollaz, S., et al. (författare)
  • Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste : Guideline report: Document 1
  • 2018
  • Rapport (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). In practice, a trade-off between reliability, accuracy and cost has to be reached when selecting the proper analysis technique for a specific application. The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.</p><p>This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to(biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. The report is composed of a set of 2 documents. Document 1(the present report) describes the available analysis techniques (both commercial and underdevelopment) for the measurement of different compounds of interest present in gasification gas. The objective is to help the reader to properly select the analysis technique most suitable to the target compounds and the intended application. Document 1 also describes some examples of application of gas analysis at commercial-, pilot- and research gasification plants, as well as examples of recent and current joint research activities in the field. The information contained in Document 1 is complemented with a book of factsheets on gas analysis techniques in Document 2, and a collection of video blogs which illustrate some of the analysis techniques described in Documents 1 and 2.</p><p>This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.</p>
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3.
  • Biollaz, S., et al. (författare)
  • Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste : Guideline report: Document 2 - Factsheets on gas analysis techniques
  • 2018
  • Rapport (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.</p><p>This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to (biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.</p>
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4.
  • Bache, Iben, et al. (författare)
  • An excess of chromosome 1 breakpoints in male infertility.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5438. ; 12:12, s. 993-1000
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a search for potential infertility loci, which might be revealed by clustering of chromosomal breakpoints, we compiled 464 infertile males with a balanced rearrangement from Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database (MCNdb) and compared their karyotypes with those of a Danish nation-wide cohort. We excluded Robertsonian translocations, rearrangements involving sex chromosomes and common variants. We identified 10 autosomal bands, five of which were on chromosome 1, with a large excess of breakpoints in the infertility group. Some of these could potentially harbour a male-specific infertility locus. However, a general excess of breakpoints almost everywhere on chromosome 1 was observed among the infertile males: 26.5 versus 14.5% in the cohort. This excess was observed both for translocation and inversion carriers, especially pericentric inversions, both for published and unpublished cases, and was significantly associated with azoospermia. The largest number of breakpoints was reported in 1q21; FISH mapping of four of these breakpoints revealed that they did not involve the same region at the molecular level. We suggest that chromosome 1 harbours a critical domain whose integrity is essential for male fertility.
5.
  • Lundgren, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Analgesic antipyretic use among young children in the TEDDY study : No association with islet autoimmunity
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2431. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The use of analgesic antipyretics (ANAP) in children have long been a matter of controversy. Data on their practical use on an individual level has, however, been scarce. There are indications of possible effects on glucose homeostasis and immune function related to the use of ANAP. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of analgesic antipyretic use across the clinical centers of The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) prospective cohort study and test if ANAP use was a risk factor for islet autoimmunity. Methods: Data were collected for 8542 children in the first 2.5 years of life. Incidence was analyzed using logistic regression with country and first child status as independent variables. Holm's procedure was used to adjust for multiplicity of intercountry comparisons. Time to autoantibody seroconversion was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model with cumulative analgesic use as primary time dependent covariate of interest. For each categorization, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used. Results: Higher prevalence of ANAP use was found in the U.S. (95.7%) and Sweden (94.8%) compared to Finland (78.1%) and Germany (80.2%). First-born children were more commonly given acetaminophen (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07, 1.49; p = 0.007) but less commonly Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAID) (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.78, 0.95; p = 0.002). Acetaminophen and NSAID use in the absence of fever and infection was more prevalent in the U.S. (40.4%; 26.3% of doses) compared to Sweden, Finland and Germany (p < 0.001). Acetaminophen or NSAID use before age 2.5 years did not predict development of islet autoimmunity by age 6 years (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.09; p = 0.27). In a sub-analysis, acetaminophen use in children with fever weakly predicted development of islet autoimmunity by age 3 years (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; p = 0.024). Conclusions: ANAP use in young children is not a risk factor for seroconversion by age 6 years. Use of ANAP is widespread in young children, and significantly higher in the U.S. compared to other study sites, where use is common also in absence of fever and infection.
6.
  • Eberhard, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Emotional disorders in testicular cancer survivors in relation to hypogonadism, androgen receptor polymorphism and treatment modality.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - Elsevier. - 1573-2517. ; 122, s. 260-266
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: It has been documented that testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) patients may be at increased risk of developing emotional distress (EMD). Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether EMD is related to the presence of hypogonadism, androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism and/or treatment intensity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three to five years after treatment, testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured in 165 TGCC patients. These patients also completed a questionnaire concerning mental health. EMD was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The androgen receptor (AR) gene has two polymorphic regions in exon I; glutamine encoding CAG and glycine encoding GGN repeats. Association between emotional disorders and AR polymorphisms as well as type of treatment was assessed. RESULTS: Neither anxiety (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.40-2.4) nor depression (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.20-6.4) were overrepresented in biochemically hypogonadal TGCC patients and no association between AR polymorphisms and EMD was found. Patients treated with >/=5 cycles of cisplatinum based chemotherapy due to refractory or relapsed disease were more prone to experiencing symptoms of anxiety (p=0.006), but not depression (p=0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical hypogonadism and AR polymorphism do not seem to be risk factors for EMD in TGCC patients. Patients with refractory or relapsed disease receiving >/=5 cycles of cisplatinum based chemotherapy may, to a higher degree than patients receiving less intense therapy, suffer from anxiety.
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7.
  • Eberhard, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Sexual Function in Men Treated for Testicular Cancer.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sexual Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1743-6109. ; 6, s. 1979-1989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT Introduction. Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) patients may be at risk of developing sexual dysfunction after treatment. Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in TGCC patients 3 to 5 years after treatment, and relate findings to biochemical hypogonadism, treatment intensity, and the expected prevalence in the Swedish male population. Methods. A questionnaire study on 129 consecutive TGCC patients 3 to 5 years post-treatment was performed. Comparators were an age-matched nationally representative group of men (N = 916) included in a study on sexual life in Sweden. Main Outcome Measures. Sexual functions (including erectile dysfunctional distress), time since last intercourse, sexual satisfaction, and experience of sexological treatment seeking were assessed using the same questions used in the epidemiological study on sexual life in Sweden. The findings in TGCC patients were correlated to biochemical signs of hypogonadism and type of oncological treatment: Surveillance, adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, or standard doses of chemotherapy. Results. A higher proportion of TGCC patients than comparators were likely to report low sexual desire (odds ratio [OR] 6.7 [95% confidence interval {CI} 2.1-21]) as well as erectile dysfunction (OR 3.8 [95% CI 1.4-10]). No significant differences were observed regarding erectile dysfunctional distress, change of desire over time, interest in sex, premature or delayed ejaculation, time since last intercourse, need for or receiving sexual advice, or sexual satisfaction. Hypogonadism did not predict erectile dysfunction (OR 1.1 [95% CI 0.26-4.5]) or low sexual desire (OR 1.2 [95% CI 0.11-14]). Treatment modality had no obvious impact on sexual function. Conclusion. Men treated for testicular cancer had higher risk of having low sexual desire and erectile dysfunction 3 to 5 years after completion of therapy than comparators. These sexual dysfunctions were not significantly associated with treatment intensity or hypogonadism. Eberhard J, Ståhl O, Cohn-Cedermark G, Cavallin-Ståhl E, Giwercman Y, Rylander L, Eberhard-Gran M, Kvist U, Fugl-Meyer KS, and Giwercman A. Sexual function in men treated for testicular cancer. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
8.
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9.
  • Sandblom, Gabriel, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate-specific Antigen as Surrogate for Characterizing Prostate Cancer Subgroups
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 36:2, s. 106-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objective: To evaluate how serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer vary with age and intensity in the diagnostic activity and to describe the treatment selection processes associated with PSA level.</p><p>Material and Methods: All men in the Swedish National Prostate Cancer Register diagnosed during 1996-1997 were included. In 1996 the register included 19 counties, covering 61% of the Swedish male population, and in 1997 21 counties with 79% of the Swedish male population.</p><p>Results: A total of 8328 men were registered. PSA levels were missing in 341 cases. With increasing PSA there was a shift towards more advanced and poorly differentiated tumours. PSA at diagnosis increased with age, with the exception of patients younger than 50 years who had higher PSA values. The mean logarithm of PSA correlated negatively with the percentage of localized tumours ( p &lt; 0.005) and the age-adjusted incidence ( p &lt; 0.05) in each respective county in 1997. PSA was higher in men receiving radiotherapy compared with those treated with radical prostatectomy as well as in the group treated with bilateral orchiectomy compared with those receiving GnRH-analogues.</p><p>Conclusions: If PSA is used as a surrogate measure of extent of tumour volume in a population of prostate cancer patients, our findings indicate that age distribution and differences in incidence (possibly due to variation in diagnostic activity) should be taken into account. In our cohort there was a selection process, probably in part guided by PSA level, when choosing type of curative or palliative treatment.</p>
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10.
  • Sandblom, Gabriel, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen for Prostate Cancer Staging in a Population-based Register
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 36:2, s. 99-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objective: Previous studies have shown a relationship between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and prostate tumour volume. Reports based on selected case series have also indicated that serum PSA may be used for staging, although a varying prevalence of metastasizing tumours complicates the interpretation of these studies. In order to determine the accuracy of the serum level of PSA in predicting the presence of metastases we performed a prospective cohort study of a geographically defined population of men with prostate cancer.</p><p>Methods: Serum level of PSA and the results of investigations for regional lymph node and distant metastases were recorded for all 8328 men with prostate cancer registered in the Swedish National Prostate Cancer Register 1996-1997.</p><p>Results: The prevalence of lymph node metastases among men who had undergone lymph node exploration was 4%, 16% and 33% for well, moderately and poorly differentiated tumours. The corresponding prevalence of distant metastases was 12%, 30% and 48%. With serum PSA &lt;20 ng/ml as a cut-off point the negative likelihood ratios for well and moderately differentiated tumours were found to be 0.47 and 0.45 for lymph node metastases and 0.24 and 0.18 for distant metastases, resulting in post-test probabilities &gt;92% for the exclusion of metastases. In men with poorly differentiated tumours, the negative likelihood ratio would need to be even lower to safely exclude disseminated disease.</p><p>Conclusion: For well to moderately differentiated tumours, further investigations to assess the presence of metastases may be omitted with no great risk for understaging if serum PSA &lt;20 ng/ml.</p>
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