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Sökning: WFRF:(Eggermont Alexander)

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1.
  • Bouwhuis, Marna G, et al. (författare)
  • Autoimmune antibodies and recurrence-free interval in melanoma patients treated with adjuvant interferon.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 101:12, s. 869-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Appearance of autoantibodies and clinical manifestations of autoimmunity in melanoma patients treated with adjuvant interferon (IFN)-alpha2b was reported to be associated with improved prognosis. We assessed the association of the appearance of autoantibodies after initiation of treatment with recurrence-free interval in two randomized trials that compared intermediate doses of IFN with observation for the treatment of melanoma patients. METHODS: Serum levels of anticardiolipin, antithyroglobulin, and antinuclear antibodies were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 187 and 356 patients in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 18952 and Nordic IFN trials, respectively, immediately before and up to 3 years after random assignment. The association of the presence of at least one of the three autoantibodies with risk of recurrence was assessed by three Cox models in patients negative for all three autoantibodies at baseline (125 from the EORTC 18952 trial and 230 from the Nordic IFN trial): 1) a model that considered appearance of autoantibodies as a time-independent variable, 2) one that considered a patient autoantibody positive once a positive test for an autoantibody was obtained, and 3) a model in which the status of the patient was defined by the most recent autoantibody test. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: When treated as a time-independent variable (model 1), appearance of autoantibodies was associated with improved relapse-free interval in both trials (EORTC 18952, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25 to 0.68, P < .001; and Nordic IFN, HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.76, P < .001). However, on correction for guarantee-time bias, the association was weaker and not statistically significant (model 2: EORTC 18952, HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.46 to 1.40, P = .44; and Nordic IFN, HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.55 to 1.30, P = .45; model 3: EORTC 18952, HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.59 to 1.87, P = .88; and Nordic IFN, HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.49 to 1.24, P = .30). CONCLUSIONS: In two randomized trials of IFN for the treatment of melanoma patients, appearance of autoantibodies was not strongly associated with improved relapse-free interval when correction was made for guarantee-time bias.
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2.
  • Lazar, Vladimir, et al. (författare)
  • Integrated molecular portrait of non-small cell lung cancers
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genomics. - 1755-8794 .- 1755-8794. ; 6:1, s. 53-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a leading cause of cancer deaths, represents a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, mostly comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC) and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). The objectives of this study were to utilize integrated genomic data including copy-number alteration, mRNA, microRNA expression and candidate-gene full sequencing data to characterize the molecular distinctions between AC and SCC. Methods: Comparative genomic hybridization followed by mutational analysis, gene expression and miRNA microarray profiling were performed on 123 paired tumor and non-tumor tissue samples from patients with NSCLC. Results: At DNA, mRNA and miRNA levels we could identify molecular markers that discriminated significantly between the various histopathological entities of NSCLC. We identified 34 genomic clusters using aCGH data; several genes exhibited a different profile of aberrations between AC and SCC, including PIK3CA, SOX2, THPO, TP63, PDGFB genes. Gene expression profiling analysis identified SPP1, CTHRC1and GREM1 as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of the cancer, and SPINK1 and BMP7 to distinguish between AC and SCC in small biopsies or in blood samples. Using integrated genomics approach we found in recurrently altered regions a list of three potential driver genes, MRPS22, NDRG1 and RNF7, which were consistently over-expressed in amplified regions, had wide-spread correlation with an average of similar to 800 genes throughout the genome and highly associated with histological types. Using a network enrichment analysis, the targets of these potential drivers were seen to be involved in DNA replication, cell cycle, mismatch repair, p53 signalling pathway and other lung cancer related signalling pathways, and many immunological pathways. Furthermore, we also identified one potential driver miRNA hsa-miR-944. Conclusions: Integrated molecular characterization of AC and SCC helped identify clinically relevant markers and potential drivers, which are recurrent and stable changes at DNA level that have functional implications at RNA level and have strong association with histological subtypes.
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3.
  • Ringborg, Ulrik, et al. (författare)
  • The Porto European Cancer Research Summit 2021
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1574-7891 .- 1878-0261. ; 15:10, s. 2507-2543
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Key stakeholders from the cancer research continuum met in May 2021 at the European Cancer Research Summit in Porto to discuss priorities and specific action points required for the successful implementation of the European Cancer Mission and Europe's Beating Cancer Plan (EBCP). Speakers presented a unified view about the need to establish high-quality, networked infrastructures to decrease cancer incidence, increase the cure rate, improve patient's survival and quality of life, and deal with research and care inequalities across the European Union (EU). These infrastructures, featuring Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCCs) as key components, will integrate care, prevention and research across the entire cancer continuum to support the development of personalized/precision cancer medicine in Europe. The three pillars of the recommended European infrastructures – namely translational research, clinical/prevention trials and outcomes research – were pondered at length. Speakers addressing the future needs of translational research focused on the prospects of multiomics assisted preclinical research, progress in Molecular and Digital Pathology, immunotherapy, liquid biopsy and science data. The clinical/prevention trial session presented the requirements for next-generation, multicentric trials entailing unified strategies for patient stratification, imaging, and biospecimen acquisition and storage. The third session highlighted the need for establishing outcomes research infrastructures to cover primary prevention, early detection, clinical effectiveness of innovations, health-related quality-of-life assessment, survivorship research and health economics. An important outcome of the Summit was the presentation of the Porto Declaration, which called for a collective and committed action throughout Europe to develop the cancer research infrastructures indispensable for fostering innovation and decreasing inequalities within and between member states. Moreover, the Summit guidelines will assist decision making in the context of a unique EU-wide cancer initiative that, if expertly implemented, will decrease the cancer death toll and improve the quality of life of those confronted with cancer, and this is carried out at an affordable cost.
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4.
  • Boussemart, Lise, et al. (författare)
  • eIF4F is a nexus of resistance to anti-BRAF and anti-MEK cancer therapies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 513:7516, s. 105-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In BRAF(V600)-mutant tumours, most mechanisms of resistance to drugs that target the BRAF and/or MEK kinases rely on reactivation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway, on activation of the alternative, PI(3)K-AKT-mTOR, pathway (which is ERK independent) or on modulation of the caspase-dependent apoptotic cascade. All three pathways converge to regulate the formation of the eIF4F eukaryotic translation initiation complex, which binds to the 7-methylguanylate cap (m(7)G) at the 5' end of messenger RNA, thereby modulating the translation of specific mRNAs. Here we show that the persistent formation of the eIF4F complex, comprising the eIF4E cap-binding protein, the eIF4G scaffolding protein and the eIF4A RNA helicase, is associated with resistance to anti-BRAF, anti-MEK and anti-BRAF plus anti-MEK drug combinations in BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma, colon and thyroid cancer cell lines. Resistance to treatment and maintenance of eIF4F complex formation is associated with one of three mechanisms: reactivation of MAPK signalling, persistent ERK-independent phosphorylation of the inhibitory eIF4E-binding protein 4EBP1 or increased pro-apoptotic BCL-2-modifying factor (BMF)-dependent degradation of eIF4G. The development of an in situ method to detect the eIF4E-eIF4G interactions shows that eIF4F complex formation is decreased in tumours that respond to anti-BRAF therapy and increased in resistant metastases compared to tumours before treatment. Strikingly, inhibiting the eIF4F complex, either by blocking the eIF4E-eIF4G interaction or by targeting eIF4A, synergizes with inhibiting BRAF(V600) to kill the cancer cells. eIF4F not only appears to be an indicator of both innate and acquired resistance but also is a promising therapeutic target. Combinations of drugs targeting BRAF (and/or MEK) and eIF4F may overcome most of the resistance mechanisms arising in BRAF(V600)-mutant cancers.
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5.
  • Chakera, Annette H., et al. (författare)
  • EANM-EORTC general recommendations for sentinel node diagnostics in melanoma
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer. - 1619-7070. ; 36:10, s. 1713-1742
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The accurate diagnosis of a sentinel node in melanoma includes a sequence of procedures from different medical specialities (nuclear medicine, surgery, oncology, and pathology). The items covered are presented in 11 sections and a reference list: (1) definition of a sentinel node, (2) clinical indications, (3) radiopharmaceuticals and activity injected, (4) dosimetry, (5) injection technique, (6) image acquisition and interpretation, (7) report and display, ( 8) use of dye, ( 9) gamma probe detection, (10) surgical techniques in sentinel node biopsy, and (11) pathological evaluation of melanoma-draining sentinel lymph nodes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to "general consensus" and similar expressions. The recommendations are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting of all steps of the sentinel node procedure in the hope of setting state-of-the-art standards for good-quality evaluation of possible spread to the lymphatic system in intermediate-to-high risk melanoma without clinical signs of dissemination.
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6.
  • Fluckiger, Aurelie, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-reactivity between tumor MHC class I-restricted antigens and an enterococcal bacteriophage
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 369:6506, s. 936-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intestinal microbiota have been proposed to induce commensal-specific memory T cells that cross-react with tumor-associated antigens. We identified major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-binding epitopes in the tail length tape measure protein (TMP) of a prophage found in the genome of the bacteriophage Enterococcus hirae. Mice bearing E. hirae harboring this prophage mounted a TMP-specific H-2K(b)-restricted CD8(+) T lymphocyte response upon immunotherapy with cyclophosphamide or anti-PD-1 antibodies. Administration of bacterial strains engineered to express the TMP epitope improved immunotherapy in mice. In renal and lung cancer patients, the presence of the enterococcal prophage in stools and expression of a TMP-cross-reactive antigen by tumors correlated with long-term benefit of PD-1 blockade therapy. In melanoma patients, T cell clones recognizing naturally processed cancer antigens that are cross-reactive with microbial peptides were detected.
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7.
  • Sullivan, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Delivering affordable cancer care in high-income countries
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - London : Lancet Oncology. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 12:10, s. 933-980
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The burden of cancer is growing, and the disease is becoming a major economic expenditure for all developed countries. In 2008, the worldwide cost of cancer due to premature death and disability (not including direct medical costs) was estimated to be US$895 billion. This is not simply due to an increase in absolute numbers, but also the rate of increase of expenditure on cancer. What are the drivers and solutions to the so-called cancer-cost curve in developed countries? How are we going to afford to deliver high quality and equitable care? Here, expert opinion from health-care professionals, policy makers, and cancer survivors has been gathered to address the barriers and solutions to delivering affordable cancer care. Although many of the drivers and themes are specific to a particular field-eg, the huge development costs for cancer medicines-there is strong concordance running through each contribution. Several drivers of cost, such as over-use, rapid expansion, and shortening life cycles of cancer technologies (such as medicines and imaging modalities), and the lack of suitable clinical research and integrated health economic studies, have converged with more defensive medical practice, a less informed regulatory system, a lack of evidence-based sociopolitical debate, and a declining degree of fairness for all patients with cancer. Urgent solutions range from re-engineering of the macroeconomic basis of cancer costs (eg, value-based approaches to bend the cost curve and allow cost-saving technologies), greater education of policy makers, and an informed and transparent regulatory system. A radical shift in cancer policy is also required. Political toleration of unfairness in access to affordable cancer treatment is unacceptable. The cancer profession and industry should take responsibility and not accept a substandard evidence base and an ethos of very small benefit at whatever cost; rather, we need delivery of fair prices and real value from new technologies.
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8.
  • Sullivan, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-5488. ; 16:11, s. 1193-1224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, aff ordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and fi nancing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US$ 6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery-eg, pathology and imaging-are also inadequate. Our analysis identifi ed substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, aff ordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning.
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