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Sökning: WFRF:(Ehrencrona Hans)

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1.
  • Arver, Brita, et al. (författare)
  • Bilateral Prophylactic Mastectomy in Swedish Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer: A National Survey.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgery. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1528-1140. ; 253:6, s. 1147-1154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:: This study attempted a national inventory of all bilateral prophylactic mastectomies performed in Sweden between 1995 and 2005 in high-risk women without a previous breast malignancy. The primary aim was to investigate the breast cancer incidence after surgery. Secondary aims were to describe the preoperative risk assessment, operation techniques, complications, histopathological findings, and regional differences. METHODS:: Geneticists, oncologists and surgeons performing prophylactic breast surgery were asked to identify all women eligible for inclusion in their region. The medical records were reviewed in each region and the data were analyzed centrally. The BOADICEA risk assessment model was used to calculate the number of expected/prevented breast cancers during the follow-up period. RESULTS:: A total of 223 women operated on in 8 hospitals were identified. During a mean follow-up of 6.6 years, no primary breast cancer was observed compared with 12 expected cases. However, 1 woman succumbed 9 years post mastectomy to widespread adenocarcinoma of uncertain origin. Median age at operation was 40 years. A total of 58% were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. All but 3 women underwent breast reconstruction, 208 with implants and 12 with autologous tissue. Four small, unifocal, invasive cancers and 4 ductal carcinoma in situ were found in the mastectomy specimens. The incidence of nonbreast related complications was low (3%). Implant loss due to infection/necrosis occurred in 21 women (10%) but a majority received a new implant later. In total, 64% of the women underwent at least 1unanticipated secondary operation. CONCLUSIONS:: Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy is safe and efficacious in reducing future breast cancer in asymptomatic women at high risk. Unanticipated reoperations are common. Given the small number of patients centralization seems justified.
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2.
  • Boström, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • PDGF-A/PDGF alpha-receptor signaling is required for lung growth and the formation of alveoli but not for early lung branching morphogenesis
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Developmental Dynamics. ; 223:1, s. 155-162
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) constitute a family of four gene products (PDGF-A-D) acting by means of two receptor tyrosine kinases, PDGFR alpha and beta. Three of the ligands (PDGF-A, -B, and -C) bind to PDGFR alpha with high affinity. Knockout of pdgf-a in mice has demonstrated a role for PDGF-A in the recruitment of smooth muscle cells to the alveolar sacs and their further compartmentalization into alveoli. Although this is a late, postnatal step in lung development, pdgf-a antisense oligonucleotides were previously shown to inhibit epithelial branching in rat lung explants in vitro, which reflects an early embryonic process. These conflicting results may be explained by substitution of genetic loss of pdgf-a by maternal transfer of PDGF-A to the knockout embryo or the presence of other PDGFR alpha agonists (PDGF-B and -C) in vivo, potentially masking an effect of PDGF-A on branching morphogenesis. Alternatively, the administration of pdgf-a antisense oligonucleotides affected other processes than the intended. To discriminate between these opposing possibilities, we have analyzed lung development in pdgfr alpha -/- embryos and lung primordia grown in vitro. Our analysis shows that, while the pdgfr alpha -/- lungs and explanted lung rudiments were smaller than normal, branching morphogenesis appears qualitatively intact and proceeds until at least embryonic day 15.5, generating both prospective conducting and respiratory airways. We conclude that, although PDGF-AA signaling over PDGFR alpha may have direct or indirect roles in overall lung growth, it does not specifically control early branching of the lung epithelium.
3.
  • Boström, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • PDGF-A signaling is a critical event in lung alveolar myofibroblast development and alveogenesis.
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Cell. - Cell Press. - 1097-4172. ; 85:6, s. 863-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A mouse platelet-derived growth factor A chain (PDGF-A) null allele is shown to be homozygous lethal, with two distinct restriction points, one prenatally before E10 and one postnatally. Postnatally surviving PDGF-A-deficient mice develop lung emphysema secondary to the failure of alveolar septation. This is apparently caused by the loss of alveolar myofibroblasts and associated elastin fiber deposits. PDGF alpha receptor-positive cells in the lung having the location of putative alveolar myofibroblast progenitors were specifically absent in PDGF-A null mutants. We conclude that PDGF-A is crucial for alveolar myofibroblast ontogeny. We have previously shown that PDGF-B is required in the ontogeny of kidney mesangial cells. The PDGFs therefore appear to regulate the generation of specific populations of myofibroblasts during mammalian development. The two PDGF null phenotypes also reveal analogous morphogenetic functions for myofibroblast-type cells in lung and kidney organogenesis.
4.
  • Boström, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • U-2973, a novel B-cell line established from a patient with a mature B-cell leukemia displaying concurrent t(14;18) and MYC translocation to a non-IG gene partner.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Haematology1987-01-01+01:00. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0609. ; 81:3, s. 218-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • B-cell lymphomas/leukemias with simultaneous t(14;18)(q32;q21) and MYC rearrangements have recently been shown to constitute a separate diagnostic entity, presenting with a rapid clinical course and a very poor prognosis. We describe the establishment of an Epstein-Barr virus negative cell line, designated U-2973, from a male patient with a de novo aggressive B-cell lymphoma/leukemia and very high peripheral blast cell count. Flow cytometry of bone marrow cells and U-2973 displayed a mature B-cell phenotype, and immunostaining showed expression of MYC and BCL2. IG gene rearrangement data were consistent with a lymphoid neoplasm of germinal centre derivation. Cytogenetic studies using conventional G-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization, spectral karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism array demonstrated a complex karyotype with both a t(14;18) and double translocations between MYC and a non-IG gene partner located at chromosome 12p12.1.
5.
  • Couch, Fergus J., et al. (författare)
  • Identification of four novel susceptibility loci for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723. ; 7:11375, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 x 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for similar to 11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.
6.
  • Ding, Hao, et al. (författare)
  • A specific requirement for PDGF-C in palate formation and PDGFR-alpha signaling.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 36:10, s. 1111-1116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PDGF-C is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family, which signals through PDGF receptor (PDGFR) alphaalpha and alphabeta dimers. Here we show that Pdgfc(-/-) mice die in the perinatal period owing to feeding and respiratory difficulties associated with a complete cleft of the secondary palate. This phenotype was less severe than that of Pdgfra(-/-) embryos. Pdgfc(-/-) Pdgfa(-/-) embryos developed a cleft face, subepidermal blistering, deficiency of renal cortex mesenchyme, spina bifida and skeletal and vascular defects. Complete loss of function of both ligands, therefore, phenocopied the loss of PDGFR-alpha function, suggesting that both PDGF-A and PDGF-C signal through PDGFR-alpha to regulate the development of craniofacial structures, the neural tube and mesodermal organs. Our results also show that PDGF-C signaling is a new pathway in palatogenesis, different from, and independent of, those previously implicated.
7.
  • Dunning, Alison M., et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer risk variants at 6q25 display different phenotype associations and regulate ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:4, s. 374-386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyzed 3,872 common genetic variants across the ESR1 locus (encoding estrogen receptor a) in 118,816 subjects from three international consortia. We found evidence for at least five independent causal variants, each associated with different phenotype sets, including estrogen receptor (ER+ or ER-) and human ERBB2 (HER2(+) or HER2(-)) tumor subtypes, mammographic density and tumor grade. The best candidate causal variants for ER-tumors lie in four separate enhancer elements, and their risk alleles reduce expression of ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170, whereas the risk alleles of the strongest candidates for the remaining independent causal variant disrupt a silencer element and putatively increase ESR1 and RMND1 expression.
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8.
  • Fruttiger, M, et al. (författare)
  • Defective oligodendrocyte development and severe hypomyelination in PDGF-A knockout mice.
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Development. - Society for International Development. - 1477-9129. ; 126:3, s. 457-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a class of oligodendrocyte progenitors, called O-2A progenitors, that is characterized by expression of platelet-derived growth factor &agr;-receptors (PDGFR(&agr;)). It is not known whether all oligodendrocytes are derived from these PDGFRalpha-progenitors or whether a subset(s) of oligodendrocytes develops from a different, PDGFR alpha-negative lineage(s). We investigated the relationship between PDGF and oligodendrogenesis by examining mice that lack either PDGF-A or PDGF-B. PDGF-A null mice had many fewer PDGFR alpha-progenitors than either wild-type or PDGF-B null mice, demonstrating that proliferation of these cells relies heavily (though not exclusively) on PDGF-AA homodimers. PDGF-A-deficient mice also had reduced numbers of oligodendrocytes and a dysmyelinating phenotype (tremor). Not all parts of the central nervous system (CNS) were equally affected in the knockout. For example, there were profound reductions in the numbers of PDGFR alpha-progenitors and oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord and cerebellum, but less severe reductions of both cell types in the medulla. This correlation suggests a close link between PDGFRalpha-progenitors and oligodendrogenesis in most or all parts of the CNS. We also provide evidence that myelin proteolipid protein (PLP/DM-20)-positive cells in the late embryonic brainstem are non-dividing cells, presumably immature oligodendrocytes, and not proliferating precursors.
9.
  • Lawrenson, Kate, et al. (författare)
  • Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10-20), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10-13), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10-16) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10-5). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10-3) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10-3). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3′-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk.
10.
  • Li, Xuri, et al. (författare)
  • PDGF-C is a new protease-activated ligand for the PDGF alpha-receptor.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Nature Cell Biology. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1465-7392. ; 2:5, s. 302-309
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are important in many types of mesenchymal cell. Here we identify a new PDGF, PDGF-C, which binds to and activates the PDGF alpha-receptor. PDGF-C is activated by proteolysis and induces proliferation of fibroblasts when overexpressed in transgenic mice. In situ hybridization analysis in the murine embryonic kidney shows preferential expression of PDGF-C messenger RNA in the metanephric mesenchyme during epithelial conversion. Analysis of kidneys lacking the PDGF alpha-receptor shows selective loss of mesenchymal cells adjacent to sites of expression of PDGF-C mRNA; this is not found in kidneys from animals lacking PDGF-A or both PDGF-A and PDGF-B, indicating that PDGF-C may have a unique function.
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