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  • Neumann, J. T., et al. (författare)
  • Application of High-Sensitivity Troponin in Suspected Myocardial Infarction
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 380:26, s. 2529-2540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundData regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. MethodsIn 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. ResultsAmong 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. ConclusionsA risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
  • Carlsson, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • Heart filling exceeds emptying during late ventricular systole in patients with systolic heart failure and healthy subjects – a cardiac MRI study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1475-0961 .- 1475-097X. ; 39:3, s. 192-200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Total heart volume (THV) within the pericardium is not constant throughout the cardiac cycle and THV would intuitively be lowest at end systole. We have, however, observed a phase shift between ventricular outflow and atrial inflow which causes the minimum THV to occur before end systole. The aims were to explain the mechanism of the late-systolic net inflow to the heart and determine whether this net inflow is affected by increased cardiac output or systolic heart failure. Methods and Results: Healthy controls (n = 21) and patients with EF<35% (n = 14) underwent magnetic resonance imaging with flow measurements in vessels to and from the heart, and this was repeated in nine controls during 140 μgram kg−1 min−1 adenosine infusion. Minimum THV occurred 78 ± 6 ms before end of systolic ejection (8 ± 1% of the cardiac cycle) in controls. The late-systolic net inflow was 12·3 ± 1·1 ml or 6·0 ± 0·5% of total stroke volume (TSV). Cardiac output increased 66 ± 8% during adenosine but late-systolic net inflow to the heart did not change (P = 0·73). In patients with heart failure, late-systolic net inflow of the heart′s left side was lower (3·4 ± 0·5%) compared to healthy subjects (5·3 ± 0·6%, P = 0·03). Conclusions: Heart size increases before end systole due to a late-systolic net inflow which is unaffected by increased cardiac output. This may be explained by inertia of blood that flows into the atria generated by ventricular systole. The lower late-systolic net inflow in patients with systolic heart failure may be a measure of decreased ventricular filling due to decreased systolic function, thus linking systolic to diastolic dysfunction.
  • Craig, Cora L, et al. (författare)
  • International physical activity questionnaire : 12-country reliability and validity
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - 0195-9131 .- 1530-0315. ; 35:8, s. 1381-1395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a global concern, but diverse physical activity measures in use prevent international comparisons. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed as an instrument for cross-national monitoring of physical activity and inactivity.METHODS: Between 1997 and 1998, an International Consensus Group developed four long and four short forms of the IPAQ instruments (administered by telephone interview or self-administration, with two alternate reference periods, either the "last 7 d" or a "usual week" of recalled physical activity). During 2000, 14 centers from 12 countries collected reliability and/or validity data on at least two of the eight IPAQ instruments. Test-retest repeatability was assessed within the same week. Concurrent (inter-method) validity was assessed at the same administration, and criterion IPAQ validity was assessed against the CSA (now MTI) accelerometer. Spearman's correlation coefficients are reported, based on the total reported physical activity.RESULTS: Overall, the IPAQ questionnaires produced repeatable data (Spearman's rho clustered around 0.8), with comparable data from short and long forms. Criterion validity had a median rho of about 0.30, which was comparable to most other self-report validation studies. The "usual week" and "last 7 d" reference periods performed similarly, and the reliability of telephone administration was similar to the self-administered mode.CONCLUSIONS: The IPAQ instruments have acceptable measurement properties, at least as good as other established self-reports. Considering the diverse samples in this study, IPAQ has reasonable measurement properties for monitoring population levels of physical activity among 18- to 65-yr-old adults in diverse settings. The short IPAQ form "last 7 d recall" is recommended for national monitoring and the long form for research requiring more detailed assessment.
  • Ekblom, Örjan, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Validity and comparability of a wrist-worn accelerometer in children.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health. - 1543-3080 .- 1543-5474. ; 9:3, s. 389-393
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Wrist-worn accelerometers may provide an alternative to hip-worn monitors for assessing physical activity as they are easier to wear and may thus facilitate long-term recordings. The current study aimed at a) assessing the validity of the Actiwatch (wrist-worn) for estimating energy expenditure, b) determining cut-off values for light, moderate, and vigorous activities, c) studying the comparability between the Actiwatch and the Actigraph (hip-worn), and d) assessing reliability.METHODS:For validity, indirect calorimetry was used as criterion measure. ROC-analyses were applied to identify cut-off values. Comparability was tested by simultaneously wearing of the 2 accelerometers during free-living condition. Reliability was tested in a mechanical shaker.RESULTS:All-over correlation between accelerometer output and energy expenditure were found to be 0.80 (P < .001).Based on ROC-analysis, cut-off values for 1.5, 3, and 6 METs were found to be 80, 262, and 406 counts per 15 s, respectively. Energy expenditure estimates differed between the Actiwatch and the Actigraph (P < .05). The intra- and interinstrument coefficient of variation of the Actiwatch ranged between 0.72% and 8.4%.CONCLUSION:The wrist-worn Actiwatch appears to be valid and reliable for estimating energy expenditure and physical activity intensity in children aged 8 to 10 years.
  • Ekelund, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Association of weight gain in infancy and early childhood with metabolic risk in young adults
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 92:1, s. 98-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Early postnatal life has been suggested as an important window during which risks for long-term health may be influenced. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the independent associations between weight gain during infancy (0-6 months) and early childhood (3-6 yr) with components of the metabolic syndrome in young adults. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study (The Stockholm Weight Development Study). SETTING: The study was conducted in a general community. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects included 128 (54 males) singletons, followed from birth to 17 yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: None of these young adults met the full criteria for the metabolic syndrome. We therefore calculated a continuous clustered metabolic risk score by averaging the standardized values of the following components: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and insulin level. RESULTS: Clustered metabolic risk at age 17 yr was predicted by weight gain during infancy (standardized beta = 0.16; P < 0.0001) but not during early childhood (standardized beta = 0.10; P = 0.23), adjusted for birth weight, gestational age, current height, maternal fat mass, and socioeconomic status at age 17 yr. Further adjustment for current fat mass and weight gain during childhood did not alter the significant association between infancy weight gain with the metabolic risk score (standardized beta = 0.20; P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid weight gain during infancy (0-6 months) but not during early childhood (3-6 yr) predicted clustered metabolic risk at age 17 yr. Early interventions to moderate rapid weight gain even at very young ages may help to reduce adult cardiovascular disease risks.
  • Ekelund, Ulf, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Body movement and physical activity energy expenditure in children and adolescents : how to adjust for differences in body size and age
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 79:5, s. 851-856
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Physical activity data in children and adolescents who differ in body size and age are influenced by whether physical activity is expressed in terms of body movement or energy expenditure.OBJECTIVE: We examined whether physical activity expressed as body movement (ie, accelerometer counts) differs from physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) as a function of body size and age.DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study in children [n = 26; (+/-SD) age: 9.6 +/- 0.3 y] and adolescents (n = 25; age: 17.6 +/- 1.5 y) in which body movement and total energy expenditure (TEE) were simultaneously measured with the use of accelerometry and the doubly labeled water method, respectively. PAEE was expressed as 1) unadjusted PAEE [TEE minus resting energy expenditure (REE); in MJ/d], 2) PAEE adjusted for body weight (BW) (PAEE. kg(-1). d(-1)), 3) PAEE adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) (PAEE. kg FFM(-1). d(-1)), and 4) the physical activity level (PAL = TEE/REE).RESULTS: Body movement was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in children than in adolescents. Similarly, when PAEE was normalized for differences in BW or FFM, it was significantly higher in children than in adolescents (P = 0.03). In contrast, unadjusted PAEE and PAL were significantly higher in adolescents (P < 0.01).CONCLUSIONS: PAEE should be normalized for BW or FFM for comparison of physical activity between children and adolescents who differ in body size and age. Adjusting PAEE for FFM removes the confounding effect of sex, and therefore FFM may be the most appropriate body-composition variable for normalization of PAEE. Unadjusted PAEE and PAL depend on body size.
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