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1.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Thompson, P. M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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3.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Subcortical volumetric abnormalities in bipolar disorder
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 21:12, s. 1710-1716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considerable uncertainty exists about the defining brain changes associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Understanding and quantifying the sources of uncertainty can help generate novel clinical hypotheses about etiology and assist in the development of biomarkers for indexing disease progression and prognosis. Here we were interested in quantifying case-control differences in intracranial volume (ICV) and each of eight subcortical brain measures: nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, lateral ventricles. In a large study of 1710 BD patients and 2594 healthy controls, we found consistent volumetric reductions in BD patients for mean hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.232; P=3.50 × 10 -7) and thalamus (d=-0.148; P=4.27 × 10 -3) and enlarged lateral ventricles (d=-0.260; P=3.93 × 10 -5) in patients. No significant effect of age at illness onset was detected. Stratifying patients based on clinical subtype (BD type I or type II) revealed that BDI patients had significantly larger lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampus and amygdala than controls. However, when comparing BDI and BDII patients directly, we did not detect any significant differences in brain volume. This likely represents similar etiology between BD subtype classifications. Exploratory analyses revealed significantly larger thalamic volumes in patients taking lithium compared with patients not taking lithium. We detected no significant differences between BDII patients and controls in the largest such comparison to date. Findings in this study should be interpreted with caution and with careful consideration of the limitations inherent to meta-analyzed neuroimaging comparisons. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.
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4.
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5.
  • Boy, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Interactions between the atmosphere, cryosphere, and ecosystems at northern high latitudes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 19:3, s. 2015-2061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere-Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011-2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date, aiming to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. CRAICC gathered more than 100 scientists from all Nordic countries in a virtual centre with the objectives of identifying and quantifying the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms, outlining strategies to mitigate Arctic warming, and developing Nordic Earth system modelling with a focus on short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols. The outcome of CRAICC is reflected in more than 150 peer-reviewed scientific publications, most of which are in the CRAICC special issue of the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. This paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated in the centre and provides the reader with a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC with links to the particular publications for further detail. Faced with a vast amount of scientific discovery, we do not claim to completely summarize the results from CRAICC within this paper, but rather concentrate here on the main results which are related to feedback loops in climate change-cryosphere interactions that affect Arctic amplification. © Author(s) 2019.
6.
  • Gellanki, Jnaneswari, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of Superdeformed Bands in 62Zn
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 80:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combined data from four fusion-evaporation reaction experiments were utilized to investigate deformed and superdeformed structures in Zn-62(30)32. Combination of the Gammasphere gamma-ray spectrometer and ancillary particle detection systems allowed for the connection of rotational bands to well-known, low-lying excited states in Zn-62, as well as spectroscopy of discrete high-spin states reaching excitation energies of E-x=42.5 MeV. Four well- or superdeformed bands in Zn-62 are characterized and described by means of cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations.
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7.
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8.
  • Podolyák, Zs, et al. (författare)
  • Neutron-deficient N≈126 Nuclei Produced in 238U Fragmentation : Population of High-spin States
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Nuclear Structure, Astrophysics, and Reactions - FINUSTAR. - 0735403236 - 9780735403239 ; 831, s. 114-118
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The population of metastable states produced in relativistic-energy fragmentation of a 238U beam has been measured. For states with high angular momentum, I=17 and I=21.5, a higher population than expected has been observed, with the discrepancy increasing with angular momentum. By considering two sources for the angular momentum, related to single-particle and collective motions, a much improved description of the experimental results can be obtained. In addition, new results on the structure of 208Fr, 211Ra and 216Ac are reported.
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9.
  • Zannad, F., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical outcome endpoints in heart failure trials: a European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Association consensus document
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Heart Failure. - 1388-9842. ; 15:10, s. 1082-1094
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endpoint selection is a critically important step in clinical trial design. It poses major challenges for investigators, regulators, and study sponsors, and it also has important clinical and practical implications for physicians and patients. Clinical outcomes of interest in heart failure trials include all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, relevant non-fatal morbidity (e.g. all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization), composites capturing both morbidity and mortality, safety, symptoms, functional capacity, and patient-reported outcomes. Each of these endpoints has strengths and weaknesses that create controversies regarding which is most appropriate in terms of clinical importance, sensitivity, reliability, and consistency. Not surprisingly, a lack of consensus exists within the scientific community regarding the optimal endpoint(s) for both acute and chronic heart failure trials. In an effort to address these issues, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology (HFA-ESC) convened a group of expert heart failure clinical investigators, biostatisticians, regulators, and pharmaceutical industry scientists (Nice, France, 12-13 February 2012) to evaluate the challenges of defining heart failure endpoints in clinical trials and to develop a consensus framework. This report summarizes the group's recommendations for achieving common views on heart failure endpoints in clinical trials.
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10.
  • Andersson, Lise-Lotte, et al. (författare)
  • Extensive Gamma-ray Spectroscopy of Normally and Superdeformed Structures in 61Cu
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal A. Hadrons and Nuclei. - Springer. - 1434-6001. ; 36:3, s. 251-278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A largely extended experimental knowledge of the Cu-61(29)32 nucleus has been obtained from three experiments. Excited states in Cu-61 were produced via the fusion-evaporation reaction Si-28(Ar-36, 3p)Cu-61. In addition to the Ge array GAMMASPHERE, neutron and charged-particle detectors placed around the target position were used for high-performance particle spectroscopy. The constructed level scheme includes more than 160 energy levels and 320 gamma-ray transitions belonging to both normally deformed as well as superdeformed rotational structures. The multipolarities have been determined for the gamma-ray transitions and as a result spin-parity assignments are given for nearly all energy levels. Experimental results in the normally deformed region are compared with predictions from large-scale shell model calculations. The collective structures are compared with results from cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations. The results reveal the need to modify the standard Nilsson parameters in the mass A similar to 60 region.
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