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Sökning: WFRF:(Ekman CJ)

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1.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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2.
  • Abé, C, et al. (författare)
  • Bipolar disorder type I and II show distinct relationships between cortical thickness and executive function.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 1600-0447. ; 138:4, s. 325-335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontal cortical abnormalities and executive function impairment co-occur in bipolar disorder. Recent studies have shown that bipolar subtypes differ in the degree of structural and functional impairments. The relationships between cognitive performance and cortical integrity have not been clarified and might differ across patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and healthy subjects.Using a vertex-wise whole-brain analysis, we investigated how cortical integrity, as measured by cortical thickness, correlates with executive performance in patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and controls (N = 160).We found focal associations between executive function and cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex in bipolar II patients and controls, but not in bipolar I disorder. In bipolar II patients, we observed additional correlations in lateral prefrontal and occipital regions.Our findings suggest that bipolar disorder patients show altered structure-function relationships, and importantly that those relationships may differ between bipolar subtypes. The findings are line with studies suggesting subtype-specific neurobiological and cognitive profiles. This study contributes to a better understanding of brain structure-function relationships in bipolar disorder and gives important insights into the neuropathophysiology of diagnostic subtypes.
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3.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness, volume and surface area in patients with bipolar disorder types I and II.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. - 1488-2434. ; 41:4, s. 240-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common chronic psychiatric disorder mainly characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression. The disorder is associated with cognitive impairments and structural brain abnormalities, such as lower cortical volumes in primarily frontal brain regions than healthy controls. Although bipolar disorder types I (BDI) and II (BDII) exhibit different symptoms and severity, previous studies have focused on BDI. Furthermore, the most frequently investigated measure in this population is cortical volume. The aim of our study was to investigate abnormalities in patients with BDI and BDII by simultaneously analyzing cortical volume, thickness and surface area, which yields more information about disease- and symptom-related neurobiology.
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4.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal Cortical Thickness Changes in Bipolar Disorder and the Relationship to Genetic Risk, Mania, and Lithium Use.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biological psychiatry. - 1873-2402. ; 87:3, s. 271-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by episodes of manic and depressed mood states and associated with cortical brain abnormalities. Although the course of BD is often progressive, longitudinal brain imaging studies are scarce. It remains unknown whether brain abnormalities are static traits of BD or result from pathological changes over time. Moreover, the genetic effect on implicated brain regions remains unknown.Patients with BD and healthy control (HC) subjects underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging at baseline (123 patients, 83 HC subjects) and after 6 years (90 patients, 61 HC subjects). Cortical thickness maps were generated using FreeSurfer. Using linear mixed effects models, we compared longitudinal changes in cortical thickness between patients with BD and HC subjects across the whole brain. We related our findings to genetic risk for BD and tested for effects of demographic and clinical variables.Patients showed abnormal cortical thinning of temporal cortices and thickness increases in visual/somatosensory brain areas. Thickness increases were related to genetic risk and lithium use. Patients who experienced hypomanic or manic episodes between time points showed abnormal thinning in inferior frontal cortices. Cortical changes did not differ between diagnostic BD subtypes I and II.In the largest longitudinal BD study to date, we detected abnormal cortical changes with high anatomical resolution. We delineated regional effects of clinical symptoms, genetic factors, and medication that may explain progressive brain changes in BD. Our study yields important insights into disease mechanisms and suggests that neuroprogression plays a role in BD.
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5.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Manic episodes are related to changes in frontal cortex: a longitudinal neuroimaging study of bipolar disorder 1.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Brain : a journal of neurology. - 1460-2156. ; 138:Pt 11, s. 3440-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Higher numbers of manic episodes in bipolar patients has, in cross-sectional studies, been associated with less grey matter volume in prefrontal brain areas. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if manic episodes set off progressive cortical changes, or if the association is better explained by premorbid brain conditions that increase risk for mania. We followed patients with bipolar disorder type 1 for 6 years. Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at baseline and follow-up. We compared patients who had at least one manic episode between baseline and follow-up (Mania group, n = 13) with those who had no manic episodes (No-Mania group, n = 18). We used measures of cortical volume, thickness, and area to assess grey matter changes between baseline and follow-up. We found significantly decreased frontal cortical volume (dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex) in the Mania group, but no volume changes in the No-Mania group. Our results indicate that volume decrease in frontal brain regions can be attributed to the incidence of manic episodes.
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6.
  • Ekman, Carl Johan, et al. (författare)
  • A History of Psychosis in Bipolar Disorder is Associated With Gray Matter Volume Reduction.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia bulletin. - 1745-1701. ; 43:1, s. 99-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychotic symptoms are prevalent in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychiatric and neurological disorders, yet the neurobiological underpinnings of psychosis remain obscure. In the last decade, a large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown differences in local gray matter volume between patients with different psychiatric syndromes and healthy controls. Few studies have focused on the symptoms, which these syndromes are constituted of. Here, we test the association between psychosis and gray matter volume by using a sample of 167 subjects with bipolar disorder, with and without a history of psychosis, and 102 healthy controls. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed on group level using a voxel-wise mass univariate analysis (Voxel-Based Morphometry). We found that patients with a history of psychosis had smaller gray matter volume in left fusiform gyrus, the right rostral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the left inferior frontal gyrus compared with patients without psychosis and with healthy controls. There was no volume difference in these areas between the no-psychosis group and healthy controls. These areas have previously been structurally and functionally coupled to delusions and hallucinations. Our finding adds further evidence to the probability of these regions as key areas in the development of psychotic symptoms.
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7.
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8.
  • Güney, Pelin, et al. (författare)
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy in Depression : Improvement in Quality of Life Depending on Age and Sex
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of ECT. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1095-0680 .- 1533-4112.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: It is uncertain if there are variations in the improvement of quality in life between sexes and age groups after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The aim of this study was to investigate how health-related quality of life changed after treatment and to examine differences in the results between sex and age groups.METHODS: This register-based study used data from the Swedish national quality register for ECT. The study population was patients diagnosed with depression who had received ECT. Health-related quality of life was quantified using the 3-level version the EuroQol 5-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D 3 L). Analysis of variance was used to compare change in EQ-5D score from pretreatment to posttreatment between sex and age groups.RESULTS: There was a statistically significant improvement in EQ-5D index score and EQ visual analog scale (VAS) score in all patient groups after ECT. The mean improvement in EQ-5D index score and EQ-VAS score ranged from 0.31 to 0.46 and 28.29 to 39.79, respectively. Elderly patients had greater improvement in EQ-5D index score and EQ-VAS score than younger patients. There was no significant difference in improvement between the sexes. The mean improvement in EQ-5D index score was 0.40 for male patients and 0.41 for female patients.CONCLUSIONS: Electroconvulsive therapy had a considerable effect on health-related quality of life in patients with depression of both sexes and all age groups. The improvement was greatest in elderly patients, who more often had psychotic features. More studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of ECT and to further explain the varying treatment results between elderly and younger patients.
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9.
  • Göterfelt, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • The Incidence of Dental Fracturing in Electroconvulsive Therapy in Sweden
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of ECT. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1095-0680 .- 1533-4112. ; 36:3, s. 168-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: One adverse effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is dental fracture; thus, a bite guard and muscle relaxants are used to prevent it. Earlier research reported varying rates of dental fracture, but there is no large-scale study on the incidence of dental fracture during ECT. This study aimed to examine the incidence of dental fracture during ECT and to investigate whether the incidence differs between different sexes, age groups, diagnosis groups, electrode placements, or number of treatment sessions.METHODS: This register-based study used data from the Swedish national quality register for ECT. All hospitals offering ECT report to this register, and the coverage ratio is about 90%. All registered patients who started an ECT series between January 2012 and January 2019 were included in this study, with the data representing 16,681 individuals, 38,862 series, and 254,906 sessions.RESULTS: Forty-six dental fractures were identified, giving an incidence of dental fracture of 0.2% per series, 0.02% per session, and 0.3% per individual. We did not find any significant associations between dental fracture rates and male or female populations, age, or different diagnosis groups, nor was there any significant difference between dental fracture rates and electrode placement. The mean number of treatments was significantly higher in the dental fracture group than in patients without dental fracture.CONCLUSIONS: There is a minimal risk of dental fracture during ECT. Our findings, together with those of other studies, provide further motivation for the use of a bite guard and muscle relaxant.
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10.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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