SwePub
Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Ekström TJ) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Ekström TJ)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 21
  • [1]23Nästa
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
   
NumreringReferensOmslagsbildHitta
1.
  • Jia, Tianye, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of blood DNA methylation and its association with subcortical volumes : findings from the ENIGMA Epigenetics Working Group.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA methylation, which is modulated by both genetic factors and environmental exposures, may offer a unique opportunity to discover novel biomarkers of disease-related brain phenotypes, even when measured in other tissues than brain, such as blood. A few studies of small sample sizes have revealed associations between blood DNA methylation and neuropsychopathology, however, large-scale epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) are needed to investigate the utility of DNA methylation profiling as a peripheral marker for the brain. Here, in an analysis of eleven international cohorts, totalling 3337 individuals, we report epigenome-wide meta-analyses of blood DNA methylation with volumes of the hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)-three subcortical regions selected for their associations with disease and heritability and volumetric variability. Analyses of individual CpGs revealed genome-wide significant associations with hippocampal volume at two loci. No significant associations were found for analyses of thalamus and nucleus accumbens volumes. Cluster-based analyses revealed additional differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with hippocampal volume. DNA methylation at these loci affected expression of proximal genes involved in learning and memory, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fatty acid metabolism and type-2 diabetes. These DNA methylation marks, their interaction with genetic variants and their impact on gene expression offer new insights into the relationship between epigenetic variation and brain structure and may provide the basis for biomarker discovery in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric conditions.
  •  
2.
  • Meng, Weida, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype-dependent epigenetic regulation of DLGAP2 in alcohol use and dependence.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol misuse is a major public health problem originating from genetic and environmental risk factors. Alterations in the brain epigenome may orchestrate changes in gene expression that lead to alcohol misuse and dependence. Through epigenome-wide association analysis of DNA methylation from human brain tissues, we identified a differentially methylated region, DMR-DLGAP2, associated with alcohol dependence. Methylation within DMR-DLGAP2 was found to be genotype-dependent, allele-specific and associated with reward processing in brain. Methylation at the DMR-DLGAP2 regulated expression of DLGAP2 in vitro, and Dlgap2-deficient mice showed reduced alcohol consumption compared with wild-type controls. These results suggest that DLGAP2 may be an interface for genetic and epigenetic factors controlling alcohol use and dependence.
  •  
3.
  • Singh, Umashankar, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of a novel obesity phenotype caused by interspecific hybridization.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry. - 1381-3455 .- 1744-4160. ; 114:5, s. 301-330
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interspecific hybridization in mammals causes hybrid dysgenesis effects, such as sterility and abnormal placentation. Here, we describe a novel obesity syndrome caused by interspecific hybridization in the genus Mus and show that this obesity, appearing sporadically in F1 littermates derived from inbred strains, has an epigenetic basis. Mus hybrids from various strains of M. musculus and M. spretus were generated and the sporadic obese phenotype was confirmed through assessment of physiological and biochemical parameters in littermates. To understand the underlying mechanisms, large-scale and candidate gene expression assays, global DNA methylation assays and allelic expression analysis were performed. Studies showed that obese hybrids are similar to other known models of obesity. While increased axial growth indicated a defect in POMC pathway, comparison of global gene expression patterns in brain of obese F1 and obese Pomc mutant mice showed little similarity. In F1 obese mice many genes involved in the maintenance of epigenetic states, as well as several imprinted genes, were differentially expressed. Global DNA methylation analysis in brain showed that increased methylation levels were associated with obesity. The imprinted gene Gnasxl, known to be important in lipid homeostasis, was found over expressed in the obese hybrids. Allelic expression and methylation analysis of Gnasxl showed that alterations of epigenetic marks underlying F1 obesity are probably many and multi-factorial. CONCLUSIONS: This model of obesity, which is both spontaneous and epigenetic, may be a useful tool to address the epigenetic aspects of clinical obesity.
  •  
4.
  • Akhtar, Monira, et al. (författare)
  • Cell type and context-specific function of PLAG1 for IGF2 P3 promoter activity
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Oncology. - 1019-6439 .- 1791-2423. ; 41:6, s. 1959-1966
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fetal transcription factor PLAG1 is found to be overexpressed in cancers, and has been suggested to bind the insulin like growth factor 2 (IGF2) P3 promoter, and to activate the IGF2 gene. The expression of IGF2 has partly been linked to loss of CTCF-dependent chromatin insulator function at the H19 imprinting control region (ICR). We investigated the role of PLAG1 for IGF2 regulation in Hep3B and JEG-3 cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed cell type-specific binding of PLAG1 to the IGF2 P3 promoter, which was substantially insensitive to recombinant PLAG1 overexpression in the endogenous context. We hypothesized that the H19 chromatin insulator may be involved in the cell type-specific PLAG1 response. By using a GFP reporter gene/insulator assay plasmid construct with and without the H19 ICR and/or an SV40 enhancer, we confirm that the effect of the insulator is specifically associated with the activity of the IGF2 P3 promoter in the GFP reporter system, and furthermore, that the reporter insulator is functional in JEG-3 but not in Hep3B cells. FACS analysis was used to assess the function of PLAG1 in low endogenously expressing, but Zn-inducible stable PLAG1 expressing JEG-3 cell clones. Considerable increase in IGF2 expression upon PLAG1 induction with a partial insulator overriding activity was found using the reporter constructs. This is in contrast to the effect of the endogenous IGF2 gene which was insensitive to PLAG1 expression in JEG-3, while modestly induced the already highly expressed IGF2 gene in Hep3B cells. We suggest that the PLAG1 binding to the IGF2 P3 promoter and IGF2 expression is cell type-specific, and that the PLAG1 transcription factor acts as a transcriptional facilitator that partially overrides the insulation by the H19 ICR.
  •  
5.
  •  
6.
  • Barde, Swapnali, et al. (författare)
  • Alterations in the neuropeptide galanin system in major depressive disorder involve levels of transcripts, methylation, and peptide
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. - : NATL ACAD SCIENCES. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 113:52, s. E8472-E8481
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a substantial burden to patients, families, and society, but many patients cannot be treated adequately. Rodent experiments suggest that the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) and its three G protein-coupled receptors, GAL(1-3), are involved in mood regulation. To explore the translational potential of these results, we assessed the transcript levels (by quantitative PCR), DNA methylation status (by bisulfite pyrosequencing), and GAL peptide by RIA of the GAL system in postmortem brains from depressed persons who had committed suicide and controls. Transcripts for all four members were detected and showed marked regional variations, GAL and galanin receptor 1 (GALR1) being most abundant. Striking increases in GAL and GALR3 mRNA levels, especially in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and the dorsal raphe nucleus, in parallel with decreased DNA methylation, were found in both male and female suicide subjects as compared with controls. In contrast, GAL and GALR3 transcript levels were decreased, GALR1 was increased, and DNA methylation was increased in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of male suicide subjects, however, there were no changes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Thus, GAL and its receptor GALR3 are differentially methylated and expressed in brains of MDD subjects in a region- and sex-specific manner. Such an epigenetic modification in GALR3, a hyperpolarizing receptor, might contribute to the dysregulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD. Thus, one may speculate that a GAL(3) antagonist could have antidepressant properties by disinhibiting the firing of these neurons, resulting in increased release of noradrenaline and serotonin in forebrain areas involved in mood regulation.
  •  
7.
  • Islam, M. Shahidul, et al. (författare)
  • In situ activation of the type 2 ryanodine receptor in pancreatic beta cells requires cAMP-dependent phosphorylation
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 95:11, s. 6145-6150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Molecular mechanisms that regulate in situ activation of ryanodine receptors (RY) in different cells are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that caffeine (10 mM) released Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the form of small spikes in only 14% of cultured fura-2 loaded beta cells from ob/ob mice. Surprisingly, when forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase was present, caffeine induced larger Ca2+ spikes in as many as 60% of the cells. Forskolin or the phosphodiesterase-resistant PKA activator Sp-cAMPS alone did not release Ca2+ from ER. 4-Chloro-3-ethylphenol (4-CEP), an agent that activates RYs in other cell systems, released Ca2+ from ER, giving rise to a slow and small increase in [Ca2+]i in beta cells. Prior exposure of cells to forskolin or caffeine (5 mM) qualitatively altered Ca2+ release by 4-CEP, giving rise to Ca2+ spikes. In glucose-stimulated beta cells forskolin induced Ca2+ spikes that were enhanced by 3,9-dimethylxanthine, an activator of RYs. Analysis of RNA from islets and insulin-secreting betaTC-3-cells by RNase protection assay, using type-specific RY probes, revealed low-level expression of mRNA for the type 2 isoform of the receptor (RY2). We conclude that in situ activation of RY2 in beta cells requires cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, a process that recruits the receptor in a functionally operative form.
  •  
8.
  • Johansson, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Dysregulation of cell death machinery in the prefrontal cortex of human alcoholics
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. - 1461-1457 .- 1469-5111. ; 12:1, s. 109-115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In human alcoholics, the cell density is decreased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other brain areas. This may be due to persistent activation of cell death pathways. To address this hypothesis, we examined the status of cell death machinery in the dorsolateral PFC in alcoholics. Protein and mRNA expression levels of several key pro- and anti-apoptotic genes were compared in post-mortem samples of 14 male human alcoholics and 14 male controls. The findings do not support the hypothesis. On the contrary, they show that several components of intrinsic apoptotic pathway are decreased in alcoholics. No differences were evident in the motor cortex, which is less damaged in alcoholics and was analysed for comparison. Thus, cell death mechanisms may be dysregulated by inhibition of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in the PFC in human alcoholics. This inhibition may reflect molecular adaptations that counteract alcohol neurotoxicity in cells that survive after many years of alcohol exposure and withdrawal.
  •  
9.
  • Johansson, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of endogenous controls for quantitative gene expression analysis : Application on brain cortices of human chronic alcoholics
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Brain Research. - 0006-8993 .- 1872-6240. ; 1132:1, s. 20-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Real-time PCR is frequently used for gene expression quantification due to its methodological sensitivity and reproducibility. The gene expression is quantified by normalization to one or more reference genes, usually beta-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) or to ribosomal RNA (18S). However, different environmental or pathological conditions might also influence the expression of normalizing genes, which could severely skew the interpretation of quantitative results. This study evaluates whether 16 genes frequently used as endogenous controls in expression studies, can serve as such for comparison of human brain tissues of chronic alcoholics and control subjects. The prefrontal and motor cortices that are affected differently by chronic alcohol consumption were analyzed. The reference genes that have no or small differences in expression in alcoholics and control subjects, were found to be specific for each region: beta-actin (ACTB) and ribosomal large P0 (RPLP0) for the prefrontal cortex while importin 8 (IPO8) and RNA polymerase II (POLR2A) for the motor cortex. Four out of sixteen analyzed genes demonstrated significant differences in expression between alcoholics and controls: phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT1) and peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA) in the motor cortex and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) in the prefrontal cortex. Our study demonstrates the importance of validation of endogenous control genes prior to real-time PCR analysis of human brain tissues. Prescribed and non-prescribed drugs, pathological or environmental conditions along with alcohol abuse may differentially influence expression of reference genes.
  •  
10.
  •  
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 21
  • [1]23Nästa

Kungliga biblioteket hanterar dina personuppgifter i enlighet med EU:s dataskyddsförordning (2018), GDPR. Läs mer om hur det funkar här.
Så här hanterar KB dina uppgifter vid användning av denna tjänst.

 
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy