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Sökning: WFRF:(Ekvall Tomas)

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1.
  • Ekvall, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Attributional and consequential LCA in the ILCD handbook
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. - Springer. - 0948-3349. ; 21:3, s. 293-296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This discussion article aims to highlight two problematic aspects in the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook: its guidance to the choice between attributional and consequential modeling and to the choice between average and marginal data as input to the life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis. We analyze the ILCD guidance by comparing different statements in the handbook with each other and with previous research in this area. We find that the ILCD handbook is internally inconsistent when it comes to recommendations on how to choose between attributional and consequential modeling. We also find that the handbook is inconsistent with much of previous research in this matter, and also in the recommendations on how to choose between average and marginal data in the LCI. Because of the inconsistencies in the ILCD handbook, we recommend that the handbook be revised.
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  • Finnveden, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Sustainability. - Basel : MDPI AG. - 2071-1050. ; 5:3, s. 841-881
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: “Information”; “Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials”; “Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems”; “Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals”, “Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures”; and “Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services”. Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.
4.
  • Tillman, Anne-Marie, 1958-, et al. (författare)
  • Choice of system boundaries in life cycle assessment
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production. - 0959-6526. ; 2:1, s. 21-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • System boundaries in life cycle assessments (LCA) must be specified in several dimensions: boundaries between the technological system and nature, delimitations of the geographical area and time horizon considered, boundaries between production and production of capital goods and boundaries between the life cycle of the product studied and related life cycles of other products. Principles for choice of system boundaries are discussed, especially concerning the last dimension. Three methods for defining the contents of the analysed system in this respect are described: process tree, technological whole system and socio-economic whole system. The methods are described in the application's multi-output processes and cascade recycling, and examples are discussed. It is concluded that system boundaries must be relevant in relation to the purpose of an LCA, that processes outside the process tree in many cases have more influence on the result than details within the process tree, and that the different methods need to be further compared in practice and evaluated with respect to both relevance, feasibility and uncertainty.
5.
  • Ahlgren, Erik, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing long-term sustainability of district heating systems
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings EcoBalance Yokohama Nov 20-23 2012.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Biomass has become the main fuel for district heating (DH) systems in Sweden, and the substitution of biomass for oil during the last decades has led to considerably reduced CO2 emissions within the DH systems. Today, biomass is used both in heat- only boilers and, increasingly, in combined heat-and-power plants. District heating contributes also to increased sustainability through the utilization of industrial waste heat, which substitutes for primary energy use. With increasing pressure on constrained biomass resources and due to the geographical distribution of waste-heat sources, the municipal DH systems need to look for new solutions in order to further reduce their dependency on primary energy sources and enhance their sustainability. An integration of local systems into a regional heat system would allow for utilization of an increasing amount of waste heat, to capture scale effects of biomass combined heat and power plants and also to compensate for load profile differences between the local systems. DH systems are in addition being increasingly integrated with the power system and also with biorefineries through the production of bio transport fuels. Thus, the role of DH systems is becoming increasingly complex. This calls for new tools and methods to assess the sustainability of various possible future options and developments. The aim of the study is to assess the long-term sustainability of different DH developments with a focus on possibilities for integration of local DH systems into a regional system. In order to assess the sustainability in a long-term perspective of future DH options, we combine methods such as energy systems modeling and life cycle assessment in a procedural framework called life cycle sustainability assessment. The energy systems model applied is an optimizing bottom-up model. The study concerns the Vastra Gotaland region of Sweden and our model represents all the municipal DH systems at a detailed level. This presentation will mainly focus on the methodological aspects of the work: on how the different methods can be integrated and applied in a sustainability assessment of future district heating.
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  • Ahlgren, Serina, et al. (författare)
  • Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems - key issues and recommendations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. - 1932-104X. ; 9:5, s. 606-619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).
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8.
  • Ahlgren, Serina, et al. (författare)
  • Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems - key issues and recommendations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1932-1031. ; 9:5, s. 606-619
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation). (C) 2015 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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  • Andrae, Anders, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • The shift to lead-free solders - assessed through attributional and consequential life cycle inventory
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: InLCA/LCM Internet conference.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Electronics packaging is a research field that deals with everything in electronics, from the chip to the complete system, including the solder interconnection materials. As of July 1st of 2006, lead will not be allowed in solder pastes. This has called for evaluations of alternatives to tin-lead solders, and especially the environmental consequences of the shift from tin-lead solder paste (TL) to lead-free solder paste (LF). In 2003 a life cycle assessment (LCA) was initiated, having two aims: (i) to compare an TL (62% tin, 36% lead, 2% silver) to an LF (95.5% tin, 3.8% silver, 0.7% copper); both pastes assumed to include 10% flux, and (ii) to compare attributional and consequential LCA methodologies. The attributional LCA describes the environmental burdens of the solder life cycle. It describes, for example, the obvious fact that the shift from TL to LF means that lead is essentially eliminated from the solder life cycle. Our attributional LCA is largely based on literature data. Lacking environmental data for flux production, we used the economic input-output model from Carnegie Mellon to obtain approximate values . Preliminary results from the attributional LCA, indicate that LF contributes 10% more to the global warming potential (GWP) than TL. 60% of the difference, can be related to an increased reflow energy consumption, and 40% to an increased tin production. The production of flux contributed to about 5 % of the total GWP results for both solders. We have recently started the consequential LCA. It aims at describing how the environmental burdens of the technosphere are affected by a shift from TL to LF. It will describe, for example, to what extent the shift means that the total use of lead is reduced, and to what extent it means that the use of lead will increase in other life cycles. We do not expect the consequential LCA to include all inputs to the solder, because, for each input in the analysis, we need to investigate the supply curve as well as the demand curve, identifying price elasticities, marginal production, and marginal consumption.
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