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Sökning: WFRF:(Elfving Maria)

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1.
  • Dalin, Frida, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and immunological characteristics of autoimmune addison disease : A nationwide swedish multicenter study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 102:2, s. 379-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Studies of the clinical and immunological features of autoimmune Addison disease (AAD) are needed to understand the disease burden and increased mortality. Objective: To provide upgraded data on autoimmune comorbidities, replacement therapy, autoantibody profiles, and cardiovascular risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional, population-based study that included 660 AAD patients from the Swedish Addison Registry (2008-2014). When analyzing the cardiovascular risk factors, 3594 individuals from the population-based survey in Northern Sweden, MONICA (monitoring of trends and determinants of cardiovascular disease), served as controls. Main Outcome Measures: The endpoints were the prevalence of autoimmune comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Autoantibodies against 13 autoantigens were determined. Results: The proportion of 21-hydroxylase autoantibody-positive patients was 83%, and 62% of patients had ≥1 associated autoimmune diseases, more frequently coexisting in females (P < 0.0001). AAD patients had a lower body mass index (P < 0.0001) and prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.027) compared with controls. Conventional hydrocortisone tablets were used by 89% of the patients, with a mean dose of 28.1 ± 8.5 mg/d. The mean hydrocortisone equivalent dose normalized to the body surface was 14.8±4.4 mg/m2/d. A greater hydrocortisone equivalent dose was associated with a greater incidence of hypertension (P = 0.046). Conclusions: Careful monitoring of AAD patients is warranted to detect associated autoimmune diseases. Contemporary Swedish AAD patients did not have an increased prevalence of overweight, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or hyperlipidemia. However, high glucocorticoid replacement doses could be a risk factor for hypertension.
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2.
  • Andersson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid Clearance and Frequent Reinfection With Enteric Pathogens Among Children With Acute Diarrhea in Zanzibar
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 65:8, s. 1371-1377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure. Methods. Rectal swabs were collected at time of acute diarrhea and 14 days later from 127 children, aged 2-59 months and living in rural Zanzibar, and were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting multiple pathogens. Results. At baseline, detection rates >20% were found for each of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, norovirus GII, and adenovirus. At follow-up, a large proportion of the infections had become cleared (34-100%), or the pathogen load reduced, and this was observed also for agents that were presumably unrelated to diarrhea. Still, the detection frequencies at follow- up were for most agents as high as at baseline, because new infections had been acquired. Neither clearance nor reinfection was associated with moderate malnutrition, which was present in 21% of the children. Conclusions. Children residing in poor socioeconomic conditions, as in Zanzibar, are heavily exposed to enteric pathogens, but capable of rapidly clearing causative and coinfecting pathogens.
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3.
  • Dalin, Frida, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and immunological characteristics of Autoimmune Addison's disease: a nationwide Swedish multicenter study.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 102:2, s. 379-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies on clinical and immunological features of Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) are needed to understand the disease burden and increased mortality.To provide upgraded data on autoimmune comorbidities, replacement therapy, autoantibody profiles and cardiovascular risk factors.Cross sectional, population-based study. 660 AAD patients were included utilizing the Swedish Addison Registry (SAR) 2008-2014. When analyzing cardiovascular risk factors, 3,594 individuals from the population-based survey in Northern Sweden, MONICA (MONItoring of Trends and Determinants of CArdiovascular Disease), served as controls.Prevalence of autoimmune comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Autoantibodies against 13 autoantigens were determined.Sixty percent of the SAR cohort consisted of females. Mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for females than for males (36.8 vs. 31.1 years). The proportion of 21-hydroxylase autoantibody positive patients was 83% and 62% of patients had one or more associated autoimmune diseases, more frequently coexisting in females (p<0.0001). AAD patients had lower BMI (p<0.0001) and prevalence of hypertension (p=0.027) compared with controls. Conventional hydrocortisone tablets were used by 89% of patients; with the mean dose 28.1±8.5 mg/day. The mean hydrocortisone equivalent dose normalized to body surface was 14.8±4.4 mg/m(2)/day. Higher hydrocortisone equivalent dose was associated with higher incidence of hypertension (p=0.046).Careful monitoring of AAD patients is warranted to detect associated autoimmune diseases. Contemporary Swedish AAD patients do not have increased prevalence of overweight, hypertension, T2DM or hyperlipidemia. However, high glucocorticoid replacement doses may be a risk factor for hypertension.
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4.
  • Semb, Gunvor, et al. (författare)
  • A Scandcleft randomised trials of primary surgery for unilateral cleft lip and palate: 1. Planning and management.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of plastic surgery and hand surgery. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2000-6764 .- 2000-656X. ; 51:1, s. 2-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Longstanding uncertainty surrounds the selection of surgical protocols for the closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate, and randomised trials have only rarely been performed. This paper is an introduction to three randomised trials of primary surgery for children born with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). It presents the protocol developed for the trials in CONSORT format, and describes the management structure that was developed to achieve the long-term engagement and commitment required to complete the project.Ten established national or regional cleft centres participated. Lip and soft palate closure at 3-4 months, and hard palate closure at 12 months served as a common method in each trial. Trial 1 compared this with hard palate closure at 36 months. Trial 2 compared it with lip closure at 3-4 months and hard and soft palate closure at 12 months. Trial 3 compared it with lip and hard palate closure at 3-4 months and soft palate closure at 12 months. The primary outcomes were speech and dentofacial development, with a series of perioperative and longer-term secondary outcomes.Recruitment of 448 infants took place over a 9-year period, with 99.8% subsequent retention at 5 years.The series of reports that follow this introductory paper include comparisons at age 5 of surgical outcomes, speech outcomes, measures of dentofacial development and appearance, and parental satisfaction. The outcomes recorded and the numbers analysed for each outcome and time point are described in the series.ISRCTN29932826.
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5.
  • Andersson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Coinfection with Enteric Pathogens in East African Children with Acute Gastroenteritis-Associations and Interpretations
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. - : AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE. - 0002-9637 .- 1476-1645. ; 98:6, s. 1566-1570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Enteric coinfections among children in low-income countries are very common, but it is not well known if specific pathogen combinations are associated or have clinical importance. In this analysis, feces samples from children in Rwanda and Zanzibar less than 5 years of age, with (N = 994) or without (N = 324) acute diarrhea, were analyzed by realtime polymerase chain reaction targeting a wide range of pathogens. Associations were investigated by comparing codetection and mono-detection frequencies for all pairwise pathogen combinations. More than one pathogen was detected in 840 samples (65%). A negative association (coinfections being less common than expected from probability) was observed for rotavirus in combination with Shigella, Campylobacter, or norovirus genogroup II, but only in patients, which is statistically expected for agents that independently cause diarrhea. A positive correlation was observed, in both patients and controls, between Ct (threshold cycle) values for certain virulence factor genes in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (eae and bfpA) and toxin genes in enterotoxigenic E. coli (eltB and estA), allowing estimation of how often these genes were present in the same bacteria. A significant positive association in patients only was observed for Shigella andEPEC-eae, suggesting that this coinfection might interact in a manner that enhances symptoms. Although interaction between pathogens that affect symptoms is rare, this work emphasizes the importance and difference in interpretation of coinfections depending on whether they are positively or negatively associated.
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6.
  • Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina, 1963, et al. (författare)
  • Nocturnal application of transdermal estradiol patches produces levels of estradiol that mimic those seen at the onset of spontaneous puberty in girls.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 86:7, s. 3039-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of pubertal induction in children with hypogonadism is to mimic spontaneous puberty in terms of physical and psychological development. In a clinical observation study, we induced puberty in 15 girls with hyper- or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism using low doses of transdermal estradiol patches attached only during the night and compared the estradiol concentrations obtained with those in healthy girls. Pubertal induction was started between the ages of 12.3 and 18.1 yr. A transdermal matrix patch of 17beta-estradiol (25 microg/24 h; Evorel, Janssen Pharmaceuticals-Cilag) was cut into pieces corresponding to 3.1, 4.2, or 6.2 microg/24 h initially and attached to the buttock. After 4-14 months, the dose was increased gradually. Serum 17beta-estradiol concentrations were measured every 2 h by RIA (detection limit, 6.0 pmol/L; 1.6 pg/mL). The results show that it is possible to mimic the spontaneous levels as well as the diurnal pattern of serum 17beta-estradiol in early puberty, by cutting a transdermal 17beta-estradiol matrix patch and attaching a part of it, corresponding to 0.08-0.12 microg estradiol/kg BW, to the buttock nocturnally. In most of the girls, breast development occurred within 3-6 months of the start of treatment.
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7.
  • Chen, Yin Huai, et al. (författare)
  • Absence of GP130 cytokine receptor signaling causes extended Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Journal of experimental medicine. - : Rockefeller University Press. - 1540-9538. ; 217:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gene IL6ST encodes GP130, the common signal transducer of the IL-6 cytokine family consisting of 10 cytokines. Previous studies have identified cytokine-selective IL6ST defects that preserve LIF signaling. We describe three unrelated families with at least five affected individuals who presented with lethal Stüve-Wiedemann-like syndrome characterized by skeletal dysplasia and neonatal lung dysfunction with additional features such as congenital thrombocytopenia, eczematoid dermatitis, renal abnormalities, and defective acute-phase response. We identified essential loss-of-function variants in IL6ST (a homozygous nonsense variant and a homozygous intronic splice variant with exon skipping). Functional tests showed absent cellular responses to GP130-dependent cytokines including IL-6, IL-11, IL-27, oncostatin M (OSM), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Genetic reconstitution of GP130 by lentiviral transduction in patient-derived cells reversed the signaling defect. This study identifies a new genetic syndrome caused by the complete lack of signaling of a whole family of GP130-dependent cytokines in humans and highlights the importance of the LIF signaling pathway in pre- and perinatal development.
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8.
  • Christesen, Henrik Thybo, et al. (författare)
  • Tissue variations of mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy and phenotype of multi-syndromal congenital hyperinsulinism
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Medical Genetics. - : Elsevier. - 1769-7212 .- 1878-0849. ; 63:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy (GW-pUPD) is a rarely recognised disorder. The phenotypic manifestations of multilocus imprinting defects (MLIDs) remain unclear. We report of an apparently non-syndromic infant with severe congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) and diffuse pancreatic labelling by 18F*-DOPA-PET/CT leading to near-total pancreatectomy. The histology was atypical with pronounced proliferation of endocrine cells comprising >70% of the pancreatic tissue and a small pancreatoblastoma. Routine genetic analysis for CHI was normal in the blood and resected pancreatic tissue. At two years’ age, Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) stigmata emerged, and at five years a liver tumour with focal nodular hyperplasia and an adrenal tumour were resected. pUPD was detected in 11p15 and next in the entire chromosome 11 with microsatellite markers. Quantitative fluorescent PCR with amplification of chromosome-specific DNA sequences for chromosomes 13, 18, 21 and X indicated GW-pUPD. A next generation sequencing panel with 303 SNPs on 21 chromosomes showed pUPD in both blood and pancreatic tissue. The mosaic distribution of GW-pUPD ranged from 31 to 35% in blood and buccal swap to 74% in the resected pancreas, 80% in a non-tumour liver biopsy, and 100% in the liver focal nodular hyperplasia and adrenal tumour. MLID features included transient conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and lack of macrosomia from BWS (pUPD6); and behavioural and psychomotor manifestations of Angelman Syndrome (pUPD15) on follow-up. In conclusion, atypical pancreatic histology in apparently non-syndromic severe CHI patients may be the first clue to BWS and multi-syndromal CHI from GW-pUPD. Variations in the degree of mosaicism between tissues explained the phenotype.
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10.
  • Elfving, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Pathogen Clearance and New Respiratory Tract Infections Among Febrile Children in Zanzibar Investigated With Multitargeting Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction on Paired Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. - 0891-3668 .- 1532-0987. ; 37:7, s. 643-648
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: New molecular methods have revealed frequent and often polymicrobial respiratory infections in children in low-income settings. It is not known whether presence of multiple pathogens is due to prolonged infections or to frequent exposure. The aim of this study was to analyze short-term pathogen clearance from nasopharynx and the rate of new respiratory tract infections in febrile preschool children. Methods: Children (n = 207) with uncomplicated acute febrile illness 2-59 months of age presenting to a health center in Zanzibar, Tanzania, April-July 2011, were included. Paired nasopharyngeal swab samples, collected at enrolment and after 14 days, were analyzed by multiple real-time polymerase chain reaction for Adenovirus, bocavirus, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Coronaviruses, Enterovirus, influenza A and B virus, metapneumovirus, measles virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, parainfluenza virus, Parechovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and Rhinovirus. An age-matched and geographically matched healthy control group (n = 166) underwent nasopharyngeal sampling on 1 occasion. Results: At baseline, 157/207 (76%) patients had at least 1 pathogen detected, in total 199 infections. At follow-up (day 14), 162/199 (81%) of these infections were not detected, including >95% of the previously detected infections with Enterovirus, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, metapneumovirus or parainfluenza virus. Still 115 (56%) children were positive for at least 1 pathogen at follow-up, of which 95/115 (83%) were not found at baseline. Detection of influenza B on day 14 was significantly associated with fever during follow-up. Conclusion: The results suggest that children with acute febrile illness in Zanzibar rapidly clear respiratory tract infections but frequently acquire new infections within 14 days.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 34
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