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  • Ellinghaus, David, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of five chronic inflammatory diseases identifies 27 new associations and highlights disease-specific patterns at shared loci
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - New York, USA : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:5, s. 510-518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We simultaneously investigated the genetic landscape of ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis to investigate pleiotropy and the relationship between these clinically related diseases. Using high-density genotype data from more than 86,000 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 244 independent multidisease signals, including 27 new genome-wide significant susceptibility loci and 3 unreported shared risk loci. Complex pleiotropy was supported when contrasting multidisease signals with expression data sets from human, rat and mouse together with epigenetic and expressed enhancer profiles. The comorbidities among the five immune diseases were best explained by biological pleiotropy rather than heterogeneity (a subgroup of cases genetically identical to those with another disease, possibly owing to diagnostic misclassification, molecular subtypes or excessive comorbidity). In particular, the strong comorbidity between primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease is likely the result of a unique disease, which is genetically distinct from classical inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes.
  • Ellinghaus, David, et al. (författare)
  • Association between variants of PRDM1 and NDP52 and Crohn's disease, based on exome sequencing and functional studies
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 145:2, s. 339-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 140 Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility loci. For most loci, the variants that cause disease are not known and the genes affected by these variants have not been identified. We aimed to identify variants that cause CD through detailed sequencing, genetic association, expression, and functional studies.METHODS: We sequenced whole exomes of 42 unrelated subjects with CD and 5 healthy subjects (controls) and then filtered single nucleotide variants by incorporating association results from meta-analyses of CD GWAS and in silico mutation effect prediction algorithms. We then genotyped 9348 subjects with CD, 2868 subjects with ulcerative colitis, and 14,567 control subjects and associated variants analyzed in functional studies using materials from subjects and controls and in vitro model systems.RESULTS: We identified rare missense mutations in PR domain-containing 1 (PRDM1) and associated these with CD. These mutations increased proliferation of T cells and secretion of cytokines on activation and increased expression of the adhesion molecule L-selectin. A common CD risk allele, identified in GWAS, correlated with reduced expression of PRDM1 in ileal biopsy specimens and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (combined P = 1.6 x 10(-8)). We identified an association between CD and a common missense variant, Val248Ala, in nuclear domain 10 protein 52 (NDP52) (P = 4.83 x 10(-9)). We found that this variant impairs the regulatory functions of NDP52 to inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation of genes that regulate inflammation and affect the stability of proteins in Toll-like receptor pathways.CONCLUSIONS: We have extended the results of GWAS and provide evidence that variants in PRDM1 and NDP52 determine susceptibility to CD. PRDM1 maps adjacent to a CD interval identified in GWAS and encodes a transcription factor expressed by T and B cells. NDP52 is an adaptor protein that functions in selective autophagy of intracellular bacteria and signaling molecules, supporting the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of CD.
  • Liu, Jimmy Z, et al. (författare)
  • Dense genotyping of immune-related disease regions identifies nine new risk loci for primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 45:6, s. 670-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a severe liver disease of unknown etiology leading to fibrotic destruction of the bile ducts and ultimately to the need for liver transplantation. We compared 3,789 PSC cases of European ancestry to 25,079 population controls across 130,422 SNPs genotyped using the Immunochip. We identified 12 genome-wide significant associations outside the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, 9 of which were new, increasing the number of known PSC risk loci to 16. Despite comorbidity with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in 72% of the cases, 6 of the 12 loci showed significantly stronger association with PSC than with IBD, suggesting overlapping yet distinct genetic architectures for these two diseases. We incorporated association statistics from 7 diseases clinically occurring with PSC in the analysis and found suggestive evidence for 33 additional pleiotropic PSC risk loci. Together with network analyses, these findings add to the genetic risk map of PSC and expand on the relationship between PSC and other immune-mediated diseases.
  • Dand, Nick, et al. (författare)
  • Exome-wide association study reveals novel psoriasis susceptibility locus at TNFSF15 and rare protective alleles in genes contributing to type I IFN signalling
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 26:21, s. 4301-4313
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disorder for which multiple genetic susceptibility loci have been identified, but few resolved to specific functional variants. In this study, we sought to identify common and rare psoriasis-associated gene-centric variation. Using exome arrays we genotyped four independent cohorts, totalling 11 861 psoriasis cases and 28 610 controls, aggregating the dataset through statistical meta-analysis. Single variant analysis detected a previously unreported risk locus at TNFSF15 (rs6478108; P = 1.50 x 10(-8), OR = 1.10), and association of common protein-altering variants at 11 loci previously implicated in psoriasis susceptibility. We validate previous reports of protective low-frequency protein-altering variants within IFIH1 (encoding an innate antiviral receptor) and TYK2 (encoding a Janus kinase), in each case establishing a further series of protective rare variants (minor allele frequency amp;lt; 0.01) via gene-wide aggregation testing (IFIH1: p(burden) = 2.53 x 10(-7), OR = 0.707; TYK2: p(burden) = 6.17 x 10(-4), OR = 0.744). Both genes play significant roles in type I interferon (IFN) production and signalling. Several of the protective rare and low-frequency variants in IFIH1 and TYK2 disrupt conserved protein domains, highlighting potential mechanisms through which their effect may be exerted.
  • Paternoster, Lavinia, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies three new risk loci for atopic dermatitis.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 44:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a commonly occurring chronic skin disease with high heritability. Apart from filaggrin (FLG), the genes influencing atopic dermatitis are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 5,606 affected individuals and 20,565 controls from 16 population-based cohorts and then examined the ten most strongly associated new susceptibility loci in an additional 5,419 affected individuals and 19,833 controls from 14 studies. Three SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the discovery and replication cohorts combined, including rs479844 upstream of OVOL1 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.88, P = 1.1 × 10(-13)) and rs2164983 near ACTL9 (OR = 1.16, P = 7.1 × 10(-9)), both of which are near genes that have been implicated in epidermal proliferation and differentiation, as well as rs2897442 in KIF3A within the cytokine cluster at 5q31.1 (OR = 1.11, P = 3.8 × 10(-8)). We also replicated association with the FLG locus and with two recently identified association signals at 11q13.5 (rs7927894; P = 0.008) and 20q13.33 (rs6010620; P = 0.002). Our results underline the importance of both epidermal barrier function and immune dysregulation in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis.
  • Thaventhiran, James E D (författare)
  • Whole-genome sequencing of a sporadic primary immunodeficiency cohort.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 583:7814, s. 90-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary immunodeficiency (PID) is characterized by recurrent and often life-threatening infections, autoimmunity and cancer, and it poses major diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Although the most severe forms of PID are identified in early childhood, most patients present in adulthood, typically with no apparent family history and a variable clinical phenotype of widespread immune dysregulation: about 25% of patients have autoimmune disease, allergy is prevalent and up to 10% develop lymphoid malignancies1-3. Consequently, in sporadic (or non-familial) PID genetic diagnosis is difficult and the role of genetics is not well defined. Here we address these challenges by performing whole-genome sequencing in a large PID cohort of 1,318 participants. An analysis of the coding regions of the genome in 886 index cases of PID found that disease-causing mutations in known genes that are implicated in monogenic PID occurred in 10.3% of these patients, and a Bayesian approach (BeviMed4) identified multiple new candidate PID-associated genes, including IVNS1ABP. We also examined the noncoding genome, and found deletions in regulatory regions that contribute to disease causation. In addition, we used a genome-wide association study to identify loci that are associated with PID, and found evidence for the colocalization of-and interplay between-novel high-penetrance monogenic variants and common variants (at the PTPN2 and SOCS1 loci). This begins to explain the contribution of common variants to the variable penetrance and phenotypic complexity that are observed in PID. Thus, using a cohort-based whole-genome-sequencing approach in the diagnosis of PID can increase diagnostic yield and further our understanding of the key pathways that influence immune responsiveness in humans.
  • Adare, A, et al. (författare)
  • Azimuthal-Angle Dependence of Charged-Pion-Interferometry Measurements with Respect to Second- and Third-Order Event Planes in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200 GeV.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 112:22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Charged-pion-interferometry measurements were made with respect to the second- and third-order event plane for Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200 GeV. A strong azimuthal-angle dependence of the extracted Gaussian-source radii was observed with respect to both the second- and third-order event planes. The results for the second-order dependence indicate that the initial eccentricity is reduced during the medium evolution, which is consistent with previous results. In contrast, the results for the third-order dependence indicate that the initial triangular shape is significantly reduced and potentially reversed by the end of the medium evolution, and that the third-order oscillations are largely dominated by the dynamical effects from triangular flow.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Azimuthal Anisotropy of pi(0) Production in Au plus Au Collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV: Path-Length Dependence of Jet Quenching and the Role of Initial Geometry
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 105:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of pi(0) production for 1 < p(T) < 18 GeV/c for Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The observed anisotropy shows a gradual decrease for 3 less than or similar to p(T) less than or similar to 7-10 GeV/c, but remains positive beyond 10 GeV/c. The magnitude of this anisotropy is underpredicted, up to at least similar to 10 GeV/c, by current perturbative QCD (PQCD) energy-loss model calculations. An estimate of the increase in anisotropy expected from initial-geometry modification due to gluon saturation effects and fluctuations is insufficient to account for this discrepancy. Calculations that implement a path-length dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data.
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