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Sökning: WFRF:(Elmhagen Bodil)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 62
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  • Dalén, Love, et al. (författare)
  • DNA analysis on fox faeces and competition induced niche shifts
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - 0962-1083 .- 1365-294X. ; 13:8, s. 2389-2392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interference competition can force inferior competitors to change their distribution patterns. It is, however, possible that the dominant competitor poses a higher threat during certain times of the year, for example during reproduction. In such cases, the inferior competitor is expected to change its distribution accordingly. We used a molecular species identification method on faeces to investigate how the spatial overlap between arctic and red foxes changes between seasons. The results show that arctic and red foxes are sympatric during winter, but allopatric in summer as arctic foxes retreat to higher altitudes further from the tree-line during the breeding season
  • Elmhagen, Bodil, et al. (författare)
  • The applicability of metapopulation theory to large mammals.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Oikos. ; 94:1, s. 89-100
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metapopulation theory has become a common framework in conservation biology and it is sometimes suggested that a metapopulation approach should be used for management of large mammals. However, it has also been suggested that metapopulation theory would not be applicable to species with long generations compared to those with short ones. In this paper, we review how and on what empirical ground metapopulation terminology has been applied to insects, small mammals and large mammals. The review showed that the metapopulation term sometimes was used for population networks which only fulfilled the broadest possible definition of a metapopulation, i.e. they were subpopulations connected by migrating individuals. We argue that the metapopulation concept should be reserved for networks that also show some kind of metapopulation dynamics. Otherwise it applies to almost all populations and loses its substance. We found there was much empirical support for metapopulation dynamics in both insects and small mammals, but not in large mammals. A possible reason is the methods used to confirm the existence of metapopulation dynamics. For insects and small mammals, the common approach is to study population turnover through patch occupancy data. For large mammals, however, longer temporal scales need to be covered and such data is difficult to obtain. Still, many populations of large mammals are exposed to habitat fragmentation and the resulting subpopulations sometimes have high risks of extinction. If there is migration between the subpopulations, the metapopulation framework could provide valuable information on their population dynamics. We suggest that a metapopulation approach can be interesting for populations of large mammals, when there are discrete breeding subpopulations and when these subpopulations have different growth rates and demographic fates. Thus, a comparison of the subpopulations’ demographic fates, rather than subpopulation turnover, can be a feasible alternative for studies of metapopulation dynamics in large mammals.
  • Norén, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • From monogamy to complexity : social organization of arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) in contrasting ecosystems
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Zoology. - : NRC Research Press (Canadian Science Publishing). - 0008-4301 .- 1480-3283. ; 90:9, s. 1102-1116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Canids display pronounced intraspecific variation in social organization, ranging from single breeding females to large and complex groups. Despite several hypotheses in this matter, little is understood about the ecological factors underlying this flexibility. We have used the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus (L., 1758)) to investigate how contrasting ecosystem conditions concerning resources and predation influence group formation. We predicted that complex groups are more common in resource-rich ecosystems with predators, whereas simple groups occur in more marginal ecosystems without predators. Samples from 54 groups were collected from four populations of arctic foxes with contrasting prey resources and predation and these samples were genotyped in 10 microsatellite loci. We found considerable variation between ecosystems and a significant relationship between resources and formation of complex groups. We conclude that sufficient amounts of food is a prerequisite for forming complex groups, but that defense against predation further increases the benefits of living in larger groups. We present a conceptual model suggesting that a trade-off between the cost of resource depletion and the benefits obtained for guarding against predators explain the differences in social organization. The variable ecology of  the arctic foxes makes it is a plausible model species for understanding the connection between ecology and social organization also in other species.
  • Angerbjörn, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Carnivore conservation in practice : replicatedmanagement actions on a large spatial scale
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 50:1, s. 59-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than a quarter of the world’s carnivores are threatened, often due to multiple andcomplex causes. Considerable research efforts are devoted to resolving the mechanisms behindthese threats in order to provide a basis for relevant conservation actions. However, evenwhen the underlying mechanisms are known, specific actions aimed at direct support for carnivoresare difficult to implement and evaluate at efficient spatial and temporal scales.2. We report on a 30-year inventory of the critically endangered Fennoscandian arctic foxVulpes lagopus L., including yearly surveys of 600 fox dens covering 21 000 km2. These surveysshowed that the population was close to extinction in 2000, with 40–60 adult animalsleft. However, the population subsequently showed a fourfold increase in size.3. During this time period, conservation actions through supplementary feeding and predatorremoval were implemented in several regions across Scandinavia, encompassing 79% of thearea. To evaluate these actions, we examined the effect of supplemental winter feeding andred fox control applied at different intensities in 10 regions. A path analysis indicated that47% of the explained variation in population productivity could be attributed to lemmingabundance, whereas winter feeding had a 29% effect and red fox control a 20% effect.4. This confirms that arctic foxes are highly dependent on lemming population fluctuationsbut also shows that red foxes severely impact the viability of arctic foxes. This study also highlightsthe importance of implementing conservation actions on extensive spatial and temporalscales, with geographically dispersed actions to scientifically evaluate the effects. We note thatpopulation recovery was only seen in regions with a high intensity of management actions.5. Synthesis and applications. The present study demonstrates that carnivore populationdeclines may be reversed through extensive actions that target specific threats. Fennoscandianarctic fox is still endangered, due to low population connectivity and expected climate impactson the distribution and dynamics of lemmings and red foxes. Climate warming is expected tocontribute to both more irregular lemming dynamics and red fox appearance in tundra areas;however, the effects of climate change can be mitigated through intensive managementactions such as supplemental feeding and red fox control.
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