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1.
  • Basmarke-Wehelie, Rahma, et al. (författare)
  • The complement regulator CD46 is bactericidal to Helicobacter pylori and blocks urease activity
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: ; 141:3, s. 918-928
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: CD46 is a C3b/C4b binding complement regulator and a receptor for several human pathogens. We examined the interaction between CD46 and Helicobacter pylori (a bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and causes gastritis), peptic ulcers, and cancer.METHODS: Using gastric epithelial cells, we analyzed a set of H pylori strains and mutants for their ability to interact with CD46 and/or influence CD46 expression. Bacterial interaction with full-length CD46 and small CD46 peptides was evaluated by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and bacterial survival analyses.RESULTS: H pylori infection caused shedding of CD46 into the extracellular environment. A soluble form of CD46 bound to H pylori and inhibited growth, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, by interacting with urease and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, which are essential bacterial pathogenicity-associated factors. Binding of CD46 or CD46-derived synthetic peptides blocked the urease activity and ability of bacteria to survive in acidic environments. Oral administration of one CD46 peptide eradicated H pylori from infected mice.CONCLUSIONS: CD46 is an antimicrobial agent that can eradicate H pylori. CD46 peptides might be developed to treat H pylori infection.
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2.
  • Illergard, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Structure is three to ten times more conserved than sequence-A study of structural response in protein cores
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proteins. - 0887-3585 .- 1097-0134. ; 77:3, s. 499-508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Protein structures change during evolution in response to mutations. Here, we analyze the mapping between sequence and structure in a set of structurally aligned protein domains. To avoid artifacts, we restricted our attention only to the core components of these structures. We found that on average, using different measures of structural change, protein cores evolve linearly with evolutionary distance (amino acid substitutions per site). This is true irrespective of which measure of structural change we used, whether RMSD or discrete structural descriptors for secondary structure, accessibility, or contacts. This linear response allows us to quantify the claim that structure is more conserved than sequence. Using structural alphabets of similar cardinality to the sequence alphabet, structural cores evolve three to ten times slower than sequences. Although we observed an average linear response, we found a wide variance. Different domain families varied fivefold in structural response to evolution. An attempt to categorically analyze this variance among subgroups by structural and functional category revealed only one statistically significant trend. This trend can be explained by the fact that beta-sheets change faster than alpha-helices, most likely due to that they are shorter and that change occurs at the ends of the secondary structure elements. Proteins 2009; 77:499-508. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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3.
  • Illergård, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • MPRAP : An accessibility predictor for a-helical transmem-brane proteins that performs well inside and outside the membrane
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: ; 11, s. 333-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In water-soluble proteins it is energetically favorable to bury hydrophobic residues and to expose polar and charged residues. In contrast to water soluble proteins, transmembrane proteins face three distinct environments; a hydrophobic lipid environment inside the membrane, a hydrophilic water environment outside the membrane and an interface region rich in phospholipid head-groups. Therefore, it is energetically favorable for transmembrane proteins to expose different types of residues in the different regions. Results: Investigations of a set of structurally determined transmembrane proteins showed that the composition of solvent exposed residues differs significantly inside and outside the membrane. In contrast, residues buried within the interior of a protein show a much smaller difference. However, in all regions exposed residues are less conserved than buried residues. Further, we found that current state-of-the-art predictors for surface area are optimized for one of the regions and perform badly in the other regions. To circumvent this limitation we developed a new predictor, MPRAP, that performs well in all regions. In addition, MPRAP performs better on complete membrane proteins than a combination of specialized predictors and acceptably on water-soluble proteins. A web-server of MPRAP is available at http://mprap.cbr.su.se/ Conclusion: By including complete a-helical transmembrane proteins in the training MPRAP is able to predict surface accessibility accurately both inside and outside the membrane. This predictor can aid in the prediction of 3D-structure, and in the identification of erroneous protein structures.
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4.
  • Runesson, Johan, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Determining receptor–ligand interaction of human galanin receptor type 3
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: ; 57:7, s. 804-811
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Galanin is a neuropeptide found throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems of a wide range of species, ranging from human and mouse to frog and tuna. Galanin mediates its physiological roles through three receptors (GalR1–3), all members of the G-protein coupled receptor family. In mapping these roles, receptor subtype selective ligands are crucial tools. To facilitate the ligand design, data on receptor structure and interaction points are of great importance. The current study investigates the mechanism by which galanin interacts with GalR3. Mutated receptors were tested with competitive binding analysis in vitro. Our studies identify six mutagenic constructs that lost receptor affinity completely, despite being expressed at the cell surface. Mutations of the Tyr1033.33 in transmembrane helix (TM) III, His2516.51 in TM VI, Arg2737.35 or His2777.39 in TM VII, Phe2636.63 or Tyr2707.32 in the extracellular loop III all result in complete reduction of ligand binding. In addition, docking studies of an in silico model of GalR3 propose that four of the identified residues interact with pharmacophores situated within the galanin(2–6) sequence. This study provides novel insights into the interaction between ligands and GalR3 and highlights the requirement for correct design of targeting ligands.
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7.
  • Armenteros, Jose Juan Almagro, et al. (författare)
  • Detecting sequence signals in targeting peptides using deep learning
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Life science alliance. - : LIFE SCIENCE ALLIANCE LLC. - 2575-1077. ; 2:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In bioinformatics, machine learning methods have been used to predict features embedded in the sequences. In contrast to what is generally assumed, machine learning approaches can also provide new insights into the underlying biology. Here, we demonstrate this by presenting TargetP 2.0, a novel state-of-the-art method to identify N-terminal sorting signals, which direct proteins to the secretory pathway, mitochondria, and chloroplasts or other plastids. By examining the strongest signals from the attention layer in the network, we find that the second residue in the protein, that is, the one following the initial methionine, has a strong influence on the classification. We observe that two-thirds of chloroplast and thylakoid transit peptides have an alanine in position 2, compared with 20% in other plant proteins. We also note that in fungi and single-celled eukaryotes, less than 30% of the targeting peptides have an amino acid that allows the removal of the N-terminal methionine compared with 60% for the proteins without targeting peptide. The importance of this feature for predictions has not been highlighted before.
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8.
  • Attwood, Misty M. (författare)
  • Membrane-bound proteins : Characterization, evolution, and functional analysis
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Alpha-helical transmembrane proteins are important components of many essential cell processes including signal transduction, transport of molecules across membranes, protein and membrane trafficking, and structural and adhesion activities, amongst others. Their involvement in critical networks makes them the focus of interest in investigating disease pathways, as candidate drug targets, and in evolutionary analyses to identify homologous protein families and possible functional activities. Transmembrane (TM) proteins can be categorized into major groups based the same gross structure, i.e., the number of transmembrane helices, which are often correlated with specific functional activities, for example as receptors or transporters. The focus of this thesis was to analyze the evolution of the membrane proteome from the last holozoan common ancestor (LHCA) through metazoans to garner insight into the fundamental functional clusters that underlie metazoan diversity and innovation. Twenty-four eukaryotic proteomes were analyzed, with results showing more than 70% of metazoan transmembrane protein families have a pre-metazoan origin. In concert with that, we characterized the previously unstudied groups of human proteins with three, four, and five membrane-spanning regions (3TM, 4TM, and 5TM) and analyzed their functional activities, involvement in disease pathways, and unique characteristics. Combined, we manually curated and classified nearly 11% of the human transmembrane proteome with these three studies. The 3TM data set included 152 proteins, with nearly 45% that localize specifically to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and are involved in membrane biosynthesis and lipid biogenesis, proteins trafficking, catabolic processes, and signal transduction due to the large ionotropic glutamate receptor family. The 373 proteins identified in the 4TM data set are predominantly involved in transport activities, as well as cell communication and adhesion, and function as structural elements. The compact 5TM data set includes 58 proteins that engage in localization and transport activities, such as protein targeting, membrane trafficking, and vesicle transport. Notably, ~60% are identified as cancer prognostic markers that are associated with clinical outcomes of different tumour types. This thesis investigates the evolutionary origins of the human transmembrane proteome, characterizes formerly dark areas of the membrane proteome, and extends the fundamental knowledge of transmembrane proteins.
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9.
  • Bano-Polo, Manuel, et al. (författare)
  • Charge Pair Interactions in Transmembrane Helices and Turn Propensity of the Connecting Sequence Promote Helical Hairpin Insertion
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - : Elsevier. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 425:4, s. 830-840
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • alpha-Helical hairpins, consisting of a pair of closely spaced transmembrane (TM) helices that are connected by a short interfacial turn, are the simplest structural motifs found in multi-spanning membrane proteins. In naturally occurring hairpins, the presence of polar residues is common and predicted to complicate membrane insertion. We postulate that the pre-packing process offsets any energetic cost of allocating polar and charged residues within the hydrophobic environment of biological membranes. Consistent with this idea, we provide here experimental evidence demonstrating that helical hairpin insertion into biological membranes can be driven by electrostatic interactions between closely separated, poorly hydrophobic sequences. Additionally, we observe that the integral hairpin can be stabilized by a short loop heavily populated by turn-promoting residues. We conclude that the combined effect of TM-TM electrostatic interactions and tight turns plays an important role in generating the functional architecture of membrane proteins and propose that helical hairpin motifs can be acquired within the context of the Sec61 translocon at the early stages of membrane protein biosynthesis. Taken together, these data further underline the potential complexities involved in accurately predicting TM domains from primary structures.
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10.
  • Basile, Walter, 1980- (författare)
  • Difference in disorder between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is largely due to Serine in linker regions
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this study we ask what are the molecular properties that make eukaryotic proteins more disordered than prokaryotic ones. First, we show that on average eukaryotic proteins contain more amino acids that are promoting disorder. In particular the fraction of Serine residues is close to 8% of all residues in eukaryotes and less than 6% in prokaryotes. Second, we show that domains unique to eukaryotes and linker regions in eukaryotes are both more disordered and more abundant than corresponding regions in prokaryotic proteins. Serine is an important residue for post-translational modification and regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, we conclude that it is not unlikely that both the need for regulation in a complex eukaryotic cell and the increased amount of longer multi-domain proteins contribute to the higher intrinsic structural disorder in eukaryotic proteins.
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