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Sökning: WFRF:(Eloranta ML)

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1.
  • Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome sequencing identifies complex contributions to genetic risk by variants in genes causing monogenic systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 138:2, s. 141-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, OMIM 152700) is a systemic autoimmune disease with a complex etiology. The mode of inheritance of the genetic risk beyond familial SLE cases is currently unknown. Additionally, the contribution of heterozygous variants in genes known to cause monogenic SLE is not fully understood. Whole-genome sequencing of DNA samples from 71 Swedish patients with SLE and their healthy biological parents was performed to investigate the general genetic risk of SLE using known SLE GWAS risk loci identified using the ImmunoChip, variants in genes associated to monogenic SLE, and the mode of inheritance of SLE risk alleles in these families. A random forest model for predicting genetic risk for SLE showed that the SLE risk variants were mainly inherited from one of the parents. In the 71 patients, we detected a significant enrichment of ultra-rare (≤ 0.1%) missense and nonsense mutations in 22 genes known to cause monogenic forms of SLE. We identified one previously reported homozygous nonsense mutation in the C1QC (Complement C1q C Chain) gene, which explains the immunodeficiency and severe SLE phenotype of that patient. We also identified seven ultra-rare, coding heterozygous variants in five genes (C1S, DNASE1L3, DNASE1, IFIH1, and RNASEH2A) involved in monogenic SLE. Our findings indicate a complex contribution to the overall genetic risk of SLE by rare variants in genes associated with monogenic forms of SLE. The rare variants were inherited from the other parent than the one who passed on the more common risk variants leading to an increased genetic burden for SLE in the child. Higher frequency SLE risk variants are mostly passed from one of the parents to the offspring affected with SLE. In contrast, the other parent, in seven cases, contributed heterozygous rare variants in genes associated with monogenic forms of SLE, suggesting a larger impact of rare variants in SLE than hitherto reported.
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2.
  • Farias, Fabiana H.G., et al. (författare)
  • A rare regulatory variant in the MEF2D gene affects gene regulation and splicing and is associated with a SLE sub-phenotype in Swedish cohorts
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 27:3, s. 432-441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with heterogeneous clinical presentation and complex etiology involving the interplay between genetic, epigenetic, environmental and hormonal factors. Many common SNPs identified by genome wide-association studies (GWAS) explain only a small part of the disease heritability suggesting the contribution from rare genetic variants, undetectable in GWAS, and complex epistatic interactions. Using targeted re-sequencing of coding and conserved regulatory regions within and around 215 candidate genes selected on the basis of their known role in autoimmunity and genes associated with canine immune-mediated diseases, we identified a rare regulatory variant rs200395694:G > T located in intron 4 of the MEF2D gene encoding the myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2D transcription factor and associated with SLE in Swedish cohorts (504 SLE patients and 839 healthy controls, p = 0.014, CI = 1.1–10). Fisher’s exact test revealed an association between the genetic variant and a triad of disease manifestations including Raynaud, anti-U1-ribonucleoprotein (anti-RNP), and anti-Smith (anti-Sm) antibodies (p = 0.00037) among the patients. The DNA-binding activity of the allele was further studied by EMSA, reporter assays, and minigenes. The region has properties of an active cell-specific enhancer, differentially affected by the alleles of rs200395694:G > T. In addition, the risk allele exerts an inhibitory effect on the splicing of the alternative tissue-specific isoform, and thus may modify the target gene set regulated by this isoform. These findings emphasize the potential of dissecting traits of complex diseases and correlating them with rare risk alleles with strong biological effects.
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3.
  • Hedlund, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Type I IFN system activation in newborns exposed to Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibodies in utero
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 6:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In utero exposure of the fetus to Ro/La autoantibodies may lead to congenital heart block (CHB). In the mother, these autoantibodies are associated with activation of the type I interferon (IFN)-system. As maternal autoantibodies are transferred to the fetus during pregnancy, we investigated whether the type I IFN-system is activated also in newborns of anti-Ro/La positive mothers, and whether fetal IFN activation is affected by maternal immunomodulatory treatment.METHODS: Blood drawn at birth from anti-Ro/La positive mothers, their newborns and healthy control pairs was separated into plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC were analysed directly or cultured. mRNA expression was analysed by microarrays, cell surface markers by flow cytometry, and IFNα levels by immunoassays.RESULTS: We observed increased expression of IFN-regulated genes and elevated plasma IFNα levels not only in anti-Ro/La positive women, but also in their newborns. CD14+ monocytes of both anti-Ro/La positive mothers and their neonates showed increased expression of Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-1, indicating cellular activation. Notably, the IFN score of neonates born to mothers receiving immunomodulatory treatment was similar to that of controls, despite persistent IFN activation in the mothers. In both maternal and neonatal PBMC, IFNα production was induced when cells were cultured with anti-Ro/La positive plasma.CONCLUSIONS: Ro/La autoantibody-exposed neonates at risk of CHB have signs of an activated immune system with an IFN signature. This study further demonstrates that neonatal cells can produce IFNα when exposed to autoantibody-containing plasma, and that maternal immunomodulatory treatment may diminish the expression of IFN-regulated genes in the fetus.
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4.
  • Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana, et al. (författare)
  • DNA methylation mapping identifies gene regulatory effects in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : British Medical Association. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 77:5, s. 736-743
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune condition with heterogeneous presentation and complex aetiology where DNA methylation changes are emerging as a contributing factor. In order to discover novel epigenetic associations and investigate their relationship to genetic risk for SLE, we analysed DNA methylation profiles in a large collection of patients with SLE and healthy individuals. Methods DNA extracted from blood from 548 patients with SLE and 587 healthy controls were analysed on the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 k BeadChip, which targets 485 000 CpG sites across the genome. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data for 196 524 SNPs on the Illumina ImmunoChip from the same individuals were utilised for methylation quantitative trait loci (cis-meQTLs) analyses. Results We identified and replicated differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) in SLE at 7245 CpG sites in the genome. The largest methylation differences were observed at type I interferon-regulated genes which exhibited decreased methylation in SLE. We mapped cis-meQTLs and identified genetic regulation of methylation levels at 466 of the DMCs in SLE. The meQTLs for DMCs in SLE were enriched for genetic association to SLE, and included seven SLE genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci: PTPRC (CD45), MHC-class III, UHRF1BP1, IRF5, IRF7, IKZF3 and UBE2L3. In addition, we observed association between genotype and variance of methylation at 20 DMCs in SLE, including at the HLA-DQB2 locus. Conclusions Our results suggest that several of the genetic risk variants for SLE may exert their influence on the phenotype through alteration of DNA methylation levels at regulatory regions of target genes.
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5.
  • Marklund, A., et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and safety of controlled ovarian stimulation using GnRH antagonist protocols for emergency fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer-a prospective nationwide Swedish multicenter study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Reproduction. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0268-1161 .- 1460-2350. ; 35:4, s. 929-938
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • STUDY QUESTION: How efficacious and safe are the current approaches to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) aimed at fertility preservation (FP) in women with breast cancer (BC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: In women with BC undergoing COS aiming at egg/embryo cryopreservation, letrozole-based protocols and those randomly started were equally effective compared with conventional COS, and the overall survival was similar between the women that proceeded to FP and those who did not. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos is an established method for FP in women with BC. Recent improvements to COS protocols include concomitant use of letrozole, random-cycle start day of stimulation and the use of GnRHa for the egg maturation trigger. To date, limited sample size of the available studies has not allowed investigation of differences in the efficacy of the different approaches to COS for FP in this patient population. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A prospective multicenter study with national coverage including 610 women with BC counseled between 1 January 1995 and 30 June 2017 at six Swedish FP regional programs. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: After counseling, 401 women elected to undergo COS. Treatments differed in the use or not of concomitant letrozole, a conventional or random-cycle day COS initiation and the use of hCG versus GnRHa trigger for oocyte maturation. Numbers of cryopreserved oocytes and embryos were defined as primary outcome. Pregnancy attempts, reproductive outcomes and long-term survival, investigated by the linking of individuals of the cohort to the total population register of the Swedish Tax Agency (up to 25 November 2018), were evaluated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Using letrozole or not resulted in similar numbers of oocytes and embryos cryopreserved (meanoocytes = 9.7 versus 10 and meanembryos 4.0 versus 5.3, respectively), similar to COS with random versus conventional start (meanoocytes 9.0 versus 10.6 and meanembryos 4.8 versus 4.8). In COS with letrozole, a GnRHa trigger was associated with a higher number of oocytes retrieved (P < 0.05) and embryos cryopreserved (P < 0.005), compared with conventional hCG trigger. Of 99 women who returned to fertility clinics after cancer treatment, 32 proceeded to thawing of oocytes or embryos and 10 of them had live births. The all-cause survival between the women that underwent COS and those who did not was similar and did not differ between the two groups. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Data on tumor characteristics and estrogen receptor (ER) status were not known for all women at the time of FP counseling and planning of COS, thus protocols with letrozole have been used for both estrogen-sensitive and non-estrogen-sensitive BC. For the same reason, subsequent adjustment for ERs in the BC or tumor characteristics as potential confounders were not performed as these parameters were not available and did not influence the provision of FP through COS. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The results of our study support the premise that recently introduced potential improvements to COS protocols for FP in women with BC are efficacious and safe. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by research grants from the Swedish Cancer Society, the Stockholm County Council, the Percy Falk Stiftelsen, Radiumhemmets Forskningsfonder, The Swedish Breast Cancer Association and Karolinska Institutet to K.A.R.W. J.B. reports grants from Amgen, AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi-Aventis and Merck, outside the submitted work, and payment from UpToDate to Asklepios Medicine HB for a chapter on BC prediction and prognostication. All the other authors have no competing interests to report. © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.
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6.
  • Odqvist, Lina, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variations in A20 DUB domain provide a genetic link to citrullination and neutrophil extracellular traps in systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 78:10, s. 1363-1370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivesGenetic variations in TNFAIP3 (A20) deubiquitinase (DUB) domain increase the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis. A20 is a negative regulator of NF-kappa B but the role of its DUB domain and related genetic variants remain unclear. We aimed to study the functional effects of A20 DUB-domain alterations in immune cells and understand its link to SLE pathogenesis.MethodsCRISPR/Cas9 was used to generate human U937 monocytes with A20 DUB-inactivating C103A knock-in (KI) mutation. Whole genome RNA-sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed genes between WT and C103A KI cells. Functional studies were performed in A20 C103A U937 cells and in immune cells from A20 C103A mice and genotyped healthy individuals with A20 DUB polymorphism rs2230926. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation was addressed ex vivo in neutrophils from A20 C103A mice and SLE-patients with rs2230926.ResultsGenetic disruption of A20 DUB domain in human and murine myeloid cells did not give rise to enhanced NF-kappa B signalling. Instead, cells with C103A mutation or rs2230926 polymorphism presented an upregulated expression of PADI4, an enzyme regulating protein citrullination and NET formation, two key mechanisms in autoimmune pathology. A20 C103A cells exhibited enhanced protein citrullination and extracellular trap formation, which could be suppressed by selective PAD4 inhibition. Moreover, SLE-patients with rs2230926 showed increased NETs and increased frequency of autoantibodies to citrullinated epitopes.ConclusionsWe propose that genetic alterations disrupting the A20 DUB domain mediate increased susceptibility to SLE through the upregulation of PADI4 with resultant protein citrullination and extracellular trap formation.
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7.
  • Rusakiewicz, S., et al. (författare)
  • NCR3/NKp30 Contributes to Pathogenesis in Primary Sjogren's Syndrome
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1946-6234 .- 1946-6242. ; 5:195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a lymphocytic exocrinopathy. However, patients often have evidence of systemic autoimmunity, and they are at markedly increased risk for the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Similar to other autoimmune disorders, a strong interferon (IFN) signature is present among subsets of pSS patients, although the precise etiology remains uncertain. NCR3/NKp30 is a natural killer (NK)-specific activating receptor regulating the cross talk between NK and dendritic cells and type II IFN secretion. We performed a case-control study of genetic polymorphisms of the NCR3/NKp30 gene and found that rs11575837 (G>A) residing in the promoter was associated with reduced gene transcription and function as well as protection to pSS. We also demonstrated that circulating levels of NCR3/NKp30 were significantly increased among pSS patients compared with controls and correlated with higher NCR3/NKp30 but not CD16-dependent IFN-gamma secretion by NK cells. Excess accumulation of NK cells in minor salivary glands correlated with the severity of the exocrinopathy. B7H6, the ligand of NKp30, was expressed by salivary epithelial cells. These findings suggest that NK cells may promote an NKp30-dependent inflammatory state in salivary glands and that blockade of the B7H6/NKp30 axis could be clinically relevant in pSS.
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8.
  • Wang, C., et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of IKBKE and IFIH1 gene variants to SLE susceptibility
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5470 .- 1466-4879. ; 14:4, s. 217-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The type I interferon system genes IKBKE and IFIH1 are associated with the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To identify the sequence variants that are able to account for the disease association, we resequenced the genes IKBKE and IFIH1. Eighty-six single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) with potentially functional effect or differences in allele frequencies between patients and controls determined by sequencing were further genotyped in 1140 SLE patients and 2060 controls. In addition, 108 imputed sequence variants in IKBKE and IFIH1 were included in the association analysis. Ten IKBKE SNVs and three IFIH1 SNVs were associated with SLE. The SNVs rs1539241 and rs12142086 tagged two independent association signals in IKBKE, and the haplotype carrying their risk alleles showed an odds ratio of 1.68 (P-value = 1.0 x 10(-5)). The risk allele of rs12142086 affects the binding of splicing factor 1 in vitro and could thus influence its transcriptional regulatory function. Two independent association signals were also detected in IFIH1, which were tagged by a low-frequency SNV rs78456138 and a missense SNV rs3747517. Their joint effect is protective against SLE (odds ratio = 0.56; P-value = 6.6 x 10(-3)). In conclusion, we have identified new SLE-associated sequence variants in IKBKE and IFIH1, and proposed functional hypotheses for the association signals.
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9.
  • Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson, et al. (författare)
  • Novel risk genes for systemic lupus erythematosus predicted by random forest classification
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have identified risk loci for SLE, but a large proportion of the genetic contribution to SLE still remains unexplained. To detect novel risk genes, and to predict an individual's SLE risk we designed a random forest classifier using SNP genotype data generated on the "Immunochip" from 1,160 patients with SLE and 2,711 controls. Using gene importance scores defined by the random forest classifier, we identified 15 potential novel risk genes for SLE. Of them 12 are associated with other autoimmune diseases than SLE, whereas three genes (ZNF804A, CDK1, and MANF) have not previously been associated with autoimmunity. Random forest classification also allowed prediction of patients at risk for lupus nephritis with an area under the curve of 0.94. By allele-specific gene expression analysis we detected cis-regulatory SNPs that affect the expression levels of six of the top 40 genes designed by the random forest analysis, indicating a regulatory role for the identified risk variants. The 40 top genes from the prediction were overrepresented for differential expression in B and T cells according to RNA-sequencing of samples from five healthy donors, with more frequent over-expression in B cells compared to T cells.
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10.
  • Blomberg, Stina, et al. (författare)
  • Presence of cutaneous interferon-alpha producing cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Lupus. - 0961-2033 .- 1477-0962. ; 10:7, s. 484-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have increased levels of interferon-alfa (IFN-alpha) in the circulation but a reduced number of functionally intact natural IFN-alpha producing cells (IPC) in peripheral blood. In search for tissue localisation of activated IPC, we investigated skin biopsies from SLE patients for the occurrence of such cells. Eleven SLE patients with inflammatory skin lesions and six healthy controls were biopsied. An immunohistochemical technique (IH) and in situ hybridisation (ISH) were used to detect intracellular IFN-alpha protein and IFN-alpha mRNA, respectively. In all 11 biopsies from SLE lesions, a high number of IPC were detected by IH. In the nonlesional SLE biopsies we could also demonstrate IPC in 10/11 patients. In 6/11 SLE patients, IFN-alpha mRNA containing cells could be detected in the specimens. A low number of IPC were detected in 1/6 healthy controls by IH, but no ISH positive cells were seen. Our results demonstrate that SLE patients have active IPC in both dermal lesions and in noninflammatory skin. A recruitment of IPC from blood to peripheral tissues may explain the low number of circulating natural IPC in SLE patients. Because the type I IFN system is involved in the SLE disease process, these results are of interest for the understanding of the pathogenesis in SLE.
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